Tag: Canada

Newfoundland and Labrador (Canada)

Newfoundland and Labrador (Canada)

Pure nature experience with wide landscapes, high peaks and a coastline of around 17,000 kilometers can be found in the Atlantic provinces of Newfoundland and Labrador. The impressive landscape makes it possible to see moose grazing on open marshes or, for example, whales that swim in various sea bays. Occasionally you can also see icebergs drifting off the coast.

The historic cities of the region are: the mining town of Labrador City, the parish of Nain and the capital St. John’s as well as the cities of Trinity, Gander and Happy Valley-Goose Bay, which is also the largest city in the wilderness of central Labrador. There are also two national parks in the region, the Gros Morne National Park, which is on the UNESCO World Heritage List, and the Terra Nova National Park, where you can also watch whales. The southwest coast is undoubtedly one of the natural beauties. From here you can climb the 55-meter-high Barchois waterfalls, which are located near Rose Blanch and can be reached through a footpath made of wooden planks.

Newfoundland and Labrador – Key Data

Area: 405,212 sq km, rank 10 of the provinces of Canada (land Area: 373,872 sq km, water Area: 31,340 sq km)

Share of water surface: 7.7%

Population: 508,726 residents, ranked 9th of the provinces of Canada (2009, estimate)

Population density: 1.3 residents per square kilometer

Member of the Confederation: March 31, 1949 (10th Province of Canada)

Capital and Largest city: St. John’s (100,646 residents, 2006,Metropolitan area 184,410 residents, 2006)

Highest point: 1,642 m, Mount Caubvick

Lowest point: 0 m, Atlantic Ocean

Lieutenant Governor: John Crosby

Prime Minister: Danny Williams

Local time: Newfoundland: CET -4:30 h. From the second Sunday in March to the first Sunday in November: CET -3: 30h.
The time difference to Central Europe in Newfoundland is -4:30 h in both winter and summer.

Labrador: CET -5 h. From the second Sunday in March to the first Sunday in November: CET -4 h.
The time difference to Central Europe in Newfoundland is -5 hours in both winter and summer.

Postal abbreviation: NL

Newfoundland and Labrador – Map and Geography

Newfoundland and Labrador

Newfoundland and Labrador, which was only called Newfoundland until 2001, is an Atlantic province of Canada and lies in the east of the country. The province is bordered by Québec to the west and south and the Atlantic ocean. The total area of ​​the province is 405,212 square kilometers. St. John’s is the capital and the largest city in the province.
The province of Newfoundland and Labrador consists on the one hand of the island of Newfoundland, which is the southern part of the province. At 108,860 square kilometers, Newfoundland is the tenth largest island on earth and, according to Winston Churchill, is “like a cork on the bottle neck of the St. Lawrence River” off the northeast coast of Canada. Newfoundland also includes many small offshore islands such as Bell Island and Twillingate Islands. The Labrador located on the mainlandis about twice the size of Newfoundland and has a north-south extension of 1,046 kilometers, while that from east to west is 724 kilometers.
While the Labrador Peninsula represents the eastern edge of the so-called Canadian Shield, Newfoundland can be seen as the foothills of the Appalachian Mountains. Both natural spaces were repeatedly formed in the course of different ice ages, so that today’s landscape with moors, lakes and rivers has formed in the interior of the country, while the 17,000 km long coast is characterized by steep headlands, offshore islands and fjord-like bays.

Located in the Long Range Mountains on the west coast, Lewis Hill is the highest mountain on Newfoundland at 814 meters. Labrador has the highest elevation with the 1,642 meter high Mount Caubvick in the Torngat Mountains.

Newfoundland and Labrador Landmarks

Newfoundland and Labrador have some interesting things to offer their visitors.

The Cathedral of Saint Johnthe Baptist, built in 1847, is worth seeing. The cathedral can be found in the capital of Newfoundland, St. John.

Near St. Lunaire-Griguet is the Lamse ausc Meadous National Historic Site. She is the oldest known European Settlement in the new world.
Within the exhibition you can find out a lot about the way of life of the Vikings. The settlement has been a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 1978.

The easternmost national park in Canada is the Terra Nova National Park. It was only officially declared a national park in 1957. The park is particularly attractive because of its mixture of land and sea. There are numerous hiking trails in the park for long excursions.
The Gros Morne National Park is also a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Due to its mountain landscape, it is particularly popular with hiking tourists and campers like to come here, as the par is right near the sea.

Newfoundland and Labrador (Canada)

Elk Island National Park

Elk Island National Park

One of Canadian National Park is the Elk Island National Park. It is located about 45 kilometers east of Edmonton in the province of Alberta.
The park has a large population of aspen forests in the entire area.The area is made even more attractive by the embedded lakes. A stay in this park is really very relaxing. You can discover a lot here. Usually you can see the large and numerous beaver structures of the beavers living there on the roadsides. The animals themselves are very shy and difficult to spot.

In addition to the large population of beavers, many deer, elk and bison also live here. The park got its name from the moose, which translated in German means island of the moose.
However, the beavers have also given a name. So the Beaver Hill, in German beaver hill, was named after the nimble and hard-working animals.

History of the park

The region was originally inhabited by the Sarcee and Cree tribes. The first European settlers came to the area in 1881 and immediately built the first settlements. Most of them came from Germany, England and the Ukraine. In 1906 the park was declared a protected area. In 1913 it became a Dominion Park and finally the area was declared a national park in 1930. The original area from 1906 has been expanded more and more over time. So it is a lot bigger today than it was in the beginning.

Leisure activities in Elk Island National Park

The park is very popular with tourists and residents as a destination for excursions. The interesting hiking routes should not be left unused. The area really has many impressive corners to offer. Hiking, wildlife viewing and, in winter, cross-country skiing are some of the common activities. Who wants to schedule a longer stay here, allows the campsites up camp. Several historical buildings have been preserved in the park. The Ukrainian Pioneer Home, a house of the Ukrainian settlers, can be visited like some others.

Animals of Elk Island National Park

The park was the first in Canada Wapiti reserve at all. The reason for the creation of the park was a herd of 20 local elk, whose protection one wanted to guarantee. Today the facility extends over an area of ​​195 square kilometers. With over 3,000 moose living here, Elk Island National Park has a large population of large game and proves that it rightly bears its name. In addition to the many large game animals, over 44 different species of mammals live here. Coyotes, muskrats and mink also live here. Even some porcupines feel at home in the area.
230 species of birds have been sighted here. Many sea birds such as ducks, seagulls, terns and loons live here. In addition, owls have also nested here.

The forest and prairie bisons are particularly famous and popular. These are represented here with 450 animals, making it the largest herd of prairie bones in all of Canada. The wood bison are also well represented here with 350 animals. So that these two animal species cannot mate and mix with each other, the herds are kept strictly separate from each other. So one would like to keep the species separately in their original forms.

Elk Island National Park

Mingan Archipelago National Park

Mingan Archipelago National Park

One of such marine national parks is the Mingan Archipelago National Park. It is located in the east of the province of Québec. The park covers an area of ​​151 square kilometers and consists of a total of 40 more or less large islands. The year of foundation is 1984.

Country and people

The Mingan Archipelago National Park is located in the immediate vicinity of the St. Lorenz Gulf coast. It is described as a unique paradise by both visitors and scientists. Perhaps this is due to the limestone formations established, which extend over the area on the coastal region. The very special thing that characterizes this area, however, is not so much the limestones or the large population of the most diverse water dwellers and water birds, but rather this unique vegetation. Indeed, the vegetation found here cannot be found anywhere else on the islands.
The Laurentine Mountains, which extend here, offer good opportunities for paddlers and water sports enthusiasts, because in this region there are mirror-smooth lakes in a dreamlike setting. The wild rivers, on the other hand, are very popular for rafting and canoeing.
The white beache e almost exude a holiday flair. Camping and sailing are also extremely popular here. Numerous campsites were set up in the southern part of the region. The north, on the other hand, was left natural and has hardly been developed. An extensive and sophisticated network of hiking trails runs through the national park and leads past the most beautiful places. It was also taken into account that there are different types and migration speeds. So routes for less trained or even inexperienced hikers were created. Whereas the more demanding routes are more recommended for well-trained runners or even real mountaineers.

Animals of the park

A wide variety of water and shore residents live on the island area, together with land animals. You can find whales, sea birds, seals and numerous species of fish here.
Seals cavort off the coast and deer, elk and lynx share the land area with the nimble red foxes. The evergreen forests protect the animals and the vegetation below.
The enormous flocks of birds, which show their flying skills in real formations and choreographies above the heads of the visitors and the treetops, are really impressive.

Native American History

There are still 100,000 indigenous people living in the province of Québec today. They belong to a total of 11 tribes. These include the Montagnais, Hurons and the Atikameks. In the north the largest tribe is the Inuits. All tribes have different languages, different customs and different ways of life.

Some of them still live in the same place where their ancestors lived long before the Europeans came to the country. Most of them even like to let the visitors participate in their lives. Be it the tasting of smoked fish or that explain the medicinal herbs. This is what you find out on a guided tour also a lot about the ancient way of life of the indigenous people. For example, how they caught their fish, preserved meat or built canoes. This is also part of the national park: people who lived here and live with their history.

Mingan Archipelago National Park

Bears in Canada

Bears in Canada

During your visit to Canada and Alaska, you are lucky enough to meet and observe all the bear species native to North America.

In this article, we introduce you to the known and lesser-known species of bears in Canada, as well as a newly emerging species.

The black bear (American black bear)

The Ursus americanus lives in almost all of North America with the exception of the extreme north and the dry southwest of the contiguous US states. The black bear is particularly common in Alaska and Canada. In contrast to the brown bear, the smaller black bear can climb very well and is also considered less dangerous than the grizzly.

While many black bears actually have black fur, there are several other varieties of color in this genus of predator. There is a silver-gray color variant as well as a brown like the grizzlies wear. Reddish brown fur colors also occur.

The fur color of the black bears depends on the habitat, the further north they live, the more likely the fur is black. In the drier habitats they are more reddish brown in color. The whitish color variant of the Kermode bears, also known as ghost bears, of the North American black bear, which lives on the Canadian west coast, is world-famous.

Like most bear species, the black bear is an omnivore, its food spectrum ranges from flowering and green plants to insects and larger game, here mostly young animals or old and weak adults as well as carrion. If the black bears live on salmon rivers, then this fish is also part of their diet.

The black bears have a head body length of about 150 to 190 cm and a shoulder height of up to about 90 cm. The average weight is around 100 kg, with individual specimens weighing only 50 kg or even 250 kg.

Bears in Canada: the brown bear , grizzly bear and Kodiak bear

The brown bear (Ursus arctos belongs to the bear family. It occurs with subspecies in North America and Eurasia. North American subspecies include the grizzly and the Kodiak bear. The brown bear is one of the largest extant land carnivores on earth. It is featured in numerous myths and Say an important part.

According to PRINTERHALL, brown bears go into hibernation when there is little food, contrary to what is often described, they do not really hibernate, the females give birth to their young during the hibernation. In order to survive the sometimes long winter dormancy, they eat a fat belly of bacon in the summer months.

The brown bears are omnivores too, flowers, grasses, mushrooms, berries, but also meat from insects, small mammals and large animals as well as the extremely popular salmon are on their menu.

The grizzly bear a subspecies of the brown bear family, the lives exclusively in North America. The name grizzly is derived from the grayish brown fur with gray tips. The grizzly is a powerful land predator with a stocky, bulky body.

In northern North America, grizzlies can weigh up to 680 kilograms, for example in the bear population in Katmai National Park & ​​Preserve in Alaska. The further south it goes, the lighter the animals become.

The male grizzlies are significantly larger and heavier than the females. The grizzlies are active during the day and at night, they can reach a speed of 60 kilometers per hour despite their body size, so running away is one of the worse ideas when encountering one of these imposing animals.

The Kodiak bear , which occurs on the island of the same name and the neighboring islands of Afognak and Shuyak off the southern coast of Alaska, is considered to be the largest land-based predator on earth, along with the polar bear and the Kamchatka bear.

This subspecies of the brown bear reaches a total length of up to three meters and a weight of up to 780 kilograms, with an average weight of 390 kilograms for males and 210 kilograms for females.

The head body length of brown bears is approx. 200 to 280 cm, the shoulder height 90 to 150 cm. The average weight is 140 to 390 kg for males and 80 to 210 kg for female bears, although there are exceptions with significantly higher weights, as described.

Bears in Canada: the polar bear or polar bear

The polar bear or polar bear (Ursus maritimus) lives in the northern polar regions of the world and is closely related to the brown bears. The polar bear is one of the largest land predators on earth, along with the Kamchatka bear and the Kodiak bear.

Due to the climatic changes on earth and the associated melting of the ice masses, the habitat of these beautiful animals is massively threatened.

Polar bears are very good and persistent swimmers. Their relatively slender physique is ideal for both the rough life on land and for covering long distances in the water. Their thick fur and the thick layer of fat that surrounds them allow them to withstand the icy temperatures of the north.

Polar bears, like all bears, are omnivores, but their special habitat makes them the bears whose diet consists mostly of meat. Seals are their favorite meal, but weakened walruses also prey on them.

On land, rodents and other small mammals, old or weak caribou or birds and bird eggs are also on the menu. Cannibalism is also not uncommon among polar bears, with strong males often eating young bears.

The head body length of a polar bear is 190 to 260 cm, with individual specimens up to 340 cm. The shoulder height is 80 to 160 cm, the average weight about 400 to 500 kg for male and 150 to 300 kg for female polar bears.

All bears, with the exception of mothers with young animals, are loners in terms of their social behavior. Bears are intelligent, curious and mostly harmless to humans. Fear and wrong behavior can end tragically for humans and bears. Many of the extraordinary and interesting predators are unfortunately shot by humans out of fear.

Bears in Canada: the pizzly or grolar bear

Brown bears and polar bears can mate with each other, and the resulting hybrid offspring is also fertile. Researchers have long agreed that these hybrids only occur in zoos. But now this hitherto largely unknown species has also been discovered in wild bears in Canada .

It was on April 16, 2006, when the Idaho-born hunter Jim Martell hunted down a supposed polar bear on Banks Island in the Canadian Northwest Territories, which later turned out to be Pizzly , a hybrid of polar bear and brown bear , after DNA analysis .

Sometimes this newly created species is also called grolar bear, derived from the names polar bear and grizzly bear.

Meanwhile, the pizzlies, the offspring of a polar bear mother and a grizzly father, are a hybrid bear species, the spread of which is of concern to researchers. They blame climate change for the fact that the habitats of both bears, which actually never met before, increasingly overlap.

The fact that the way of life of both bear species are fundamentally different, so grizzlies avoid ice zones and polar bears do not hibernate, the different foods of both species and much more causes headaches. Who will prevail in the end?

Amazingly, DNA analyzes have shown that the previously known hybrids always have a polar bear mother and a grizzly father, never the other way around. So far, this is probably due to the fact that male brown bears are always moving around, while the females tend to be more faithful to their location.

The scientists researching the phenomenon are almost certain, however, that reverse mating, polar bear father and grizzly mother, could mean the end of the polar bear. Another new species among the bears in Canada.

Bears in Canada