According to the first constitution, which came into force on November 6, 1996, Oman is an absolute monarchy (sultanate). The head of state, head of government and commander in chief of the armed forces is the sultan. Legislation (based on Sharia) is made by decrees of the monarch. Representative of the people with an advisory function is the Council of Oman, consisting of the Consultative Council (Madjlis asch-Shura; 84 members, elected for 4 years) and the State Council (Madjlis ad-Dawlah; 70 members appointed by the Sultan). All Omanis over the age of 21 are entitled to vote, and women also have the right to vote and to stand as a candidate. As the executive body, the cabinet receives its powers from the Sultan and is responsible to him. The constitution fixes individual and collective rights and freedoms (e.g. freedom of religion, prohibition of discrimination based on origin, gender, etc.).
The national flag was first hoisted on December 17, 1970. The red stripe on the leech has a third of the flag width and is covered with the coat of arms in the Obereck. The flying end is striped horizontally in white, red, green. Red is the traditional flag color of the Gulf States, the white stripe stands for peace and prosperity, and green for fertility.
The coat of arms first appeared on coins in 1940 and has been in use since 1971, modified in 1985. The emblem is the traditional parapet for adult men. In front of two crossed curved swords lies an Arab curved dagger (khanjar) with a belt buckle.
Oman: coat of arms
According to computerdo, the coat of arms of Oman shows the traditional defensive hangings of men: two crossed curved swords, in front of them an Arab curved dagger with a belt buckle.
National holiday: November 18th was the birthday of Sultan Kabus Ibn Said Ibn Taimur ( * 1940, † 2020 ), which ruled from 1971 until his death.
There are no political parties in Oman.
Trade unions have been permitted since 2006, but there are only a few in-house organizations. The umbrella organization is the General Foundation of Oman Trade Union.
The total strength of the volunteer army is about 40,000 men. The army (25,000 soldiers) is divided into 1 tank brigade, 2 infantry brigades, 1 tank and 1 infantry reconnaissance regiment, 3 artillery regiments, 1 anti-aircraft, engineer and paratrooper regiment each. The Air Force and Navy each have around 4,000 men, plus the Royal Guard with around 7,000 men.
Oman is divided into 11 governorates (Muhafazah) with 61 administrative districts (Wilayat).
The legal system is based on the Sharia (Islamic law), in addition there are elements of the English common law. Following a comprehensive reform of the judiciary, the courts of first instance are responsible for civil, criminal and economic matters; The judgments of these courts can be appealed against, for which 6 appellate courts have jurisdiction. The third instance is the Supreme Court in Muscat.
It was not until 1970 that the foundations for a modern education system were laid. There is no general compulsory school attendance. The school system comprises a ten-year basic level (English lessons from the first grade) and a subsequent two-year secondary level. In addition to the state Sultan Qaboos University (founded in 1986) in Muscat, there are four private universities and several state and private colleges.
Freedom of the press is anchored in the constitution, but it can be restricted. This happens among other things. through criminal and media laws. Some topics are taboo; self-censorship is practiced again and again. The state limits access to the journalistic profession.
Press: There are a dozen daily newspapers; Arabic languages are »Al-Watan« (»The Nation«, founded in 1971), »Oman Daily«, »Al-Shabiba«, in English »Times of Oman« (founded 1975), »Oman Tribune« (founded 2004), »Oman Daily Observer “(founded 1981) and” Muscat Daily “(founded 2009).
News agency: Oman News Agency (founded in 1986, state-owned).
Broadcasting: “Radio Sultanate of Oman” (SOR, five channels) and “Sultanate of Oman Television” (SOTV, two channels) are state owned. There are also some private radio and television stations, e.g. B. “Majan TV”.
- Official name: Sultanate of Oman
- License plate: OM
- ISO-3166: OM, OMN (512)
- Internet domain:.om
- Currency: 1 Rial Omani (RO) = 1 000 Baisa
- Area: 309,500 km²
- Population (2019): 4.9 million
- Capital: Muscat
- Official language (s): Arabic
- Form of government: monarchy (sultanate)
- Administrative division: 11 governorates
- Head of State and Prime Minister: Sultan Haitham bin Tariq bin Taimur Al Said
- Religion (s) (2010): 86% Muslim; 7% Christians, 6% Hindus, 1% other / n / a
- Time zone: Central European Time +3 hours
- National Day: November 18th
Location and infrastructure
- Location (geographical): Arabian Peninsula
- Position (coordinates): between 16 ° 30 ‘and 26 ° 30’ north latitude and 53 ° and 60 ° east longitude
- Climate: Hot desert and semi-desert climate
- Highest mountain: Jabal ash-Shams (2,980 m)
- Road network (2012): 29 685 km (paved), 30 545 km (unpaved)
- Annual population growth (2020): 2%
- Birth rate (2020): 23.1 per 1000 residents.
- Death rate (2020): 3.3 per 1000 residents.
- Average age (2020): 26.2 years
- Average life expectancy (2020): 76.3 years (men 74.4; women 78.4)
- Age structure (2020): 30.2% younger than 15 years, 3.7% older than 65 years
- Literacy rate (15-year-olds and older) (2018): 95.7%
- Mobile phone contracts (pre-paid and post-paid) (2018): 133 per 100 residents
- Internet users (2017): 80 per 100 residents
- GDP per capita (2019): US $ 17,791
- Total GDP (2019): US $ 77 billion
- GNI per capita (2019): US $ 15,330
- Education expenditure (2017): 6.7% of GDP
- Military expenditure (2019): 8.8% of GDP
- Unemployment rate (15 years and older) (2019): 2.7%