General information about Zimbabwe
The official name is The Republic of Zimbabwe.
Located in southern Africa. The area is 390.6 thousand km2, the population is 11.4 million people. (2002, estimate). The official languages are English, Shona and Ndebele. The capital is the city of Harare (approx. 2 million people, 2002). Public holiday – Independence Day April 18 (since 1980). The monetary unit is the Zimbabwean dollar.
Member ok. 40 international organizations, incl. UN (since 1966), AU (since 2000), SADC (since 1992).
Geography of Zimbabwe
Located between 25°18 and 33°30 east longitude and 15°18 and 22°12 south latitude; It borders South Africa to the south, Botswana to the west, Zambia to the north, and Mozambique to the east.
The relief of the country is a plateau 800-1500 m high, descending to the north and south; in the east, it is bordered by the Unyanga Range, where the highest point is located – Mount Inyangani (2592 m). Two abounding rivers – Zambezi and Limpopo are border. Their numerous tributaries are shallow and dry up in summer. Rivers in the southeast belong to the Sabie River Basin. A dam on the Zambezi River created the vast Caribbean Reservoir. The Zambezi is home to the famous Victoria Falls.
The soils are varied, but fertile reddish-brown savannas predominate. Only in the southwest are poor sandy soils.
The vegetation is mainly savannah (steppe, shrubby), tropical forests have been preserved in the foothills of the Inyanga, and alpine meadows above. Typically African wildlife is preserved in sparsely populated areas and national parks (10% of the territory): lions, antelopes, crocodiles, etc.
The bowels contain approx. 70 minerals. The reserves of metal ores only in the deposits where they are determined are (in terms of metal content): copper – 290 thousand tons, nickel – 550 thousand tons, platinum – 3100 tons. Chromite reserves – 1 billion tons, gold – 630 tons, iron ore – 440 million tons, coal – 28 billion tons, asbestos – 11 million tons, corundum – 52 million tons.
According to allcitycodes, the climate is subequatorial in the north and tropical in the south. On the plateau, the average temperature in October is +22°С, and in July +13°С, and in the Zambezi valley, respectively, +30°С and +20°С. The smallest amount of precipitation falls in the southwest (300-700 mm), and the largest – on the slopes of Inyanga (2000 mm). Rain falls mainly in November-March.
The population of Zimbabwe
Since the 1980s the population increased by 50%, the white population decreased. The population growth rate has dropped sharply due to the AIDS pandemic (0.05% in 2002, est.). The birth rate was 24.59%, mortality 24.06%, infant mortality 62.97 people. per 1000 newborns (2002). Average life expectancy is 36.5 years (35.1 for women, 37.8 for men) (2002).
Sex and age structure (2002): 0-14 years – 37.9% (2,178,073 men and 2,128,287 women), 15-64 years – 58.4% (respectively 3,376,850 and 3,268,315), 65 years and older – 3.7% (213,286 and 211,865). Urban population 35%. Competently 85% of the adult population.
98% of the population are Africans (82% Shona, 14% Nde Bele, 2% others), whites less than 1%. Languages: English, Shona, Ndebele. 55% of the population are Christians (more than 1 million are Catholics), the rest adhere to traditional beliefs.