Category: Europe

Georgian Literature

Georgian Literature

Georgian literature. Within the Caucasian culture, Georgian literature is the only surviving ancient literature. It has been tangible since the 5th century and initially dealt with religious issues. After Persian and Turkish rule in the 15th to 18th centuries, it was under Russian influence from the 19th century. Since Georgia regained independence in 1991, literature has played a key role in social and cultural discovery processes. According to Countryaah, Georgia is among countries that starting with letter G.


From the 5th century onwards, hagiographic works can be traced back to Jakob Zurtaweli’s »The Sorrows of Saint Shushanik«. Nonetheless, their design suggests narrative traditions that go back further. In these and subsequent works, religious, but also historical, national and philosophical questions are raised, human fates are described and descriptions of nature are provided. The 12th century shows a mature secular literature with high ideals. The economic boom accompanied by a lively literary translator activity was in the 13./14. Aborted in the 19th century by the invasion of the Mongols. Many works of Georgian literature were lost during this time, five writings from the 12th century alone have survived: inter alia. works by Mose Chonelis (12th century) and Sargis Tmogwelis (12th century) as well as by Schota Rustaweli “The Recke in the Tiger Skin” (around 1200; German).

15th to 18th century

From the 15th to the 18th century, Georgian literature developed in the context of Persian or Turkish rule. Your influence will include visible in the works of King Teimura I (* 1589, † 1663). King Artschil II (* 1647, † 1713), who also worked as a poet, already polemicized against the orientation towards Persian culture. S. S. Orbeliani published a Georgian dictionary and wrote the collection of fairy tales and fables “The Wisdom of Lies” (German) from 1686–95 with educational content. Dawit Guramishvili’s (* 1705, † 1792) compilation »Davitiani« contains poems and poems in which he addresses the deportation he personally suffered from his homeland and formulates the writer’s tasks. Besiki (actually Bessarion Gabashvili; * 1750, † 1791) was v. a. known as the author of love poetry.

19th century

After Georgia was forcibly incorporated into Tsarist Russia (from 1801), Georgian literature came into contact with Russian and, through this, with Western European literature. Aleksandre Tschawtschawadses (* 1786, † 1848) poems are oriental formulaic in the traditional sense and are characterized by the love of life and the melancholy of Romanticism. With N. Baratashvili, the most famous of the Georgian Romantics, Georgian literature finally broke away from exclusively Eastern influences. Baratashvili dealt with v. a. with questions of national identity. Giorgi Eristawi (* 1811, † 1864) revived Georgian theatrical art in the 1840s. I. Chavtschawadze and the poet Akaki Tsereteli (* 1840, † 1915) rekindled Georgian self-confidence in society and literature with, among other things, criticism of serfdom. In the 1880s, with the works of Aleksandre Qasbegis (* 1848, † 1893) and Wascha Pschawelas (* 1861, † 1915)a realistic literary current that, among other things, poetically generalized the life of Georgian mountain dwellers (so-called Georgian “mountain school”). In the course of this, the socially critical tendency of Georgian literature was further strengthened, especially since the Russian revolutionary movement raised hopes for national liberation.

Early 20th century

Galaktion Tabidze (* 1892, † 1959) became the most prominent poet among Georgian writers of the 20th century. In his poetry he sang, among other things. the ideas of the October Revolution. The different literary currents of this time combined with diverging political positions and found themselves in groups of writers such as the so-called Academic Association, in the union of proletarian writers as well as in the groups of the symbolists (who came to be known as the “blue drinking horns”) and the futurists again. From the mid-1920s, prose gained popularity while poetry lost its influence. Michail Dschawachischwili (* 1880, † 1937), K. Gamsachurdia and G. Robakidze In their novels they deal with coming to terms with the past and the preservation of national values.

After 1945

During the Second World War, many Georgian writers served on the front lines. They processed their experiences of violence and death v. a. in lyric. From the end of the 1950s, the literary topics expanded again. The narrative was increasingly discovered as a prose form, just as prose became the leading genre again from the 1960s onwards. Became known inter alia. the humorous works of Nodar Dumbadze (* 1928, † 1984) as well as the novels by Tschabua Amiredshibi (* 1921, † 2013) and Otar Tschiladze (* 1933, † 2009), which are created through the individual focus on their characters and excluding specific historical events describe social living environments.

After Georgia gained independence, novels appeared in the 1990s that deal with the Soviet era – for example in Chiladse’s »Awelum« (1995; German). At the same time, younger authors began including accompanied by the founding of her own publishing houses to print her poems and stories.

Georgian Literature

Denmark Literature

Denmark Literature

In Danish literature, runic inscriptions and legal books are the oldest surviving vernacular sources. The first literary references are in Latin.

The “Gesta Danorum” (around 1200) by Saxo Grammaticus offers a genealogical description of Danish history from its mythical beginnings to the time the book was written. In contrast, Anders Sunesen’s (* around 1167, † 1228) theological-allegorical didactic poem “Hexaëmeron” (circa 1200–28) provides an example of the international level of monastic literature of the Danish Middle Ages. The oldest book printed in Danish (1495) is the “Rimkroniken” (“Reimchronik”, finished in 1477).

Early modern age

Latin literature and handwritten records continued into the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries. At the same time, printing and the Reformation marked a turning point. In Bible translations (New Testament of 1524 and the complete Bible “Christian III. Bible”, 1550) and the scientific examination of one’s own language, an increased appreciation of the vernacular was expressed. The interest in vernacular literature resulted in an early recording of medieval ballad poetry (Folkeviser). In addition to grammars and metrics, the first poetics appeared in Danish. With a rhetorically versed poetry, which was devoted to religious and secular subjects, attempts were made to tie in with European standards. So justified T. Kingo an independent Danish psalm poem. Leonora Christina Ulfeldt’s autobiography stands out from the memoir literature, which was still heavily influenced by Christian rhetoric.


In the 18th century, Danish literature emerged as the recipient of European enlightenment ideas. Impulses from French, English and German explanatory pamphlets were taken up in particular by L. Holberg. The historian, state theorist and moral philosopher wrote comedies from 1722-28 and institutionalized theater in Denmark. The satirical tradition of Holberg was continued by Charlotte Dorothea Biehl (* 1731, † 1788) and J. Wessel. In contrast, H. A. Brorson’s pietistic psalm poetry stands for an emancipation of subjective feeling that shaped the sentimental literature of the late 18th century. Next to Klopstock other central figures of German sensibility stayed in Copenhagen. Their influence made a. noticeable in the poetry and drama of J. Ewald and J. Baggesen. Both authors also contributed significantly to the final establishment of the novel in Denmark.

Romanticism – Biedermeier – Realism

In 1802/03, H. Steffens brought the ideas of German Romanticism to Denmark through lectures. The philosophical appreciation of art led to a new understanding of authors and art, which already shaped the early collections of poetry by A. Oehlenschläger and A. W. Schack von Staffeldt. The propagated aestheticization of the nation was expressed in the use of materials and forms from Norse, Old Danish and popular Danish literature, which reflected the poetry and drama of Oehlenschläger, N. F. S. Grundtvigs, C. Winthers and B. S. Ingemanns excels. The latter made a name for himself with extensive historical novels on Danish history. The second generation of Danish Romanticism was formed around the aesthetician and playwright J. L. Heiberg, who sought to reform Danish theater based on G. W. F. Hegel and French vaudeville. Henrik Hertz and Jens Christian Hostrup (* 1818, † 1892) followed this program. Like Heiberg, F. Paludan-Müller sought a philosophically inspired poetry of ideas. In contrast, E. Aarestrup anticipated modernist forms of symbolist poetry with his erotic poetry. With Thomasine Gyllembourg, S. S. Blicher, M. Goldschmidt, H. E. Schack and Vilhelm Bergsøe (* 1835, † 1911), who are considered representatives of poetic realism, an accomplished and ironic narrative art first blossomed. The philosopher S. Kierkegaard and the fairy tale poet H. C. Andersen also acted as novelists in this environment.

Modern breakthrough and decadence literature (1870–1910)

With his lectures on the “mainstreams of 19th century literature”, which began in 1871, G. Brandes (* 1842, † 1927) revised the concept of literature and literary criticism in Denmark. The literary program developed in close connection with the industrialization and urbanization processes. What was called for was a (political) tendency literature that critically deals with a bourgeois double standard (especially sexual morality). The reception of French naturalism coincided with the nihilistic and linguistically reflective radicalism of F. Nietzsche, the Brandes discovered for European literature. With the authors of the »Modern Breakthrough«, Danish literature gained European relevance. This is true v. a. for J. P. Jacobsen, H. Bang, H. Drachmann and H. Pontoppidan, who in their novels took up the problem posed by Brandes. The claim to modernity was also formally reflected in that these authors were guided by impressionistic methods. In addition to Amalie Skram, Thit Jensen and Agnes Henningsen (* 1868, † 1962), many female authors took part in the debates on emancipation and sexual morality.

At the same time as French symbolist poetry, as a country starting with letter D according to Countryaah, Denmark experienced a lyrical renaissance in the 1880s and 90s. J. Jørgensen, S. Claussen and V. Stuckenberg grouped authors around the magazine “Taarnet” (tower) who translated classical French modernism into Danish. They attempted to counter the depicted suffering from the loss of meaning in modernity and its social and industrial upheavals with exaggerated aestheticism and religious reorientation.

Ernesto Dalgas (* 1871, † 1899), J. V. Jensen (* 1873, † 1950) and M. A. Nexø wrote real decadence fantasies with doom scenarios. Jensen and Nexø  - like Marie Bregendahl, J. Aakjær and Johan Skjoldborg (* 1861, † 1936)  - later made a name for themselves as authors of popular breakthroughs and workers’ literature.

Interwar and wartime (1910-45)

Avant-garde tendencies were found among others. in the poetry and novels Emil Bønnelyckes (* 1893, † 1953) and A. T. Kristensens (* 1893, † 1974). Overall, however, traditional, realistic modes of representation prevailed, ranging from the bourgeois, naturalistic novels of J. Paludan (* 1896, † 1975) to the socially critical collective novels of H. R. Kirk to the psychoanalytic descriptions of H. C. Branner influenced by S. Freud. The 1930s were characterized by the dichotomy between a socialist-inspired cultural radicalism and conservative-bourgeois currents (including K. Munk) embossed. The main figure of the cultural radical wing was the architect, lighting designer and revue author P. Henningsen. For the concept he formulated of everyday poetry inspired by (proletarian) popular culture, prosaic (M. Klitgaard; Hans Scherfig, * 1905, † 1979) and dramatic implementations (K. Abell) can be found. Tania Blixen held an exceptional position, whose subtle narratives, written in English and Danish, are devoted to philosophical-aesthetic questions that raise fundamental political and religious problems (gender roles, power structures, etc.).

Post-war literature (1945-60)

The breakthrough of modernism only began with post-war literature. Authors, the aesthetic and v. a. ethical questions were taken up in a poetry that was at times hermetic and rich in metaphors. As a source of inspiration for the lyricists of this generation – i.a. T. Bjørnvig, O. Wivel, O. Sarvig and F. Jæger  - acted by P. La Cour. With his subtle short stories, M. J. A. Hansen provided the prosaic counterpart to this poetry. It was only V. Sørensen who founded a really modernist prose with his linguistically reflective and seemingly absurd stories. Also in the poetry and short stories of the boy Benny Andersens (* 1929, † 2018), the poetry of Ivan Malinowski (* 1926, † 1989), the prose of P. Seeberg and in the dramas and television plays of L. Panduros, language criticism stands alongside the thematization of an existence that is perceived as absurd.

Postmodern and Political Engagement (1960-70)

An overcoming of the symbolistically inspired post-war modernism was already indicated in the early, experimental poetry of K. Rifbjerg, who has shaped the literary life of Denmark as a novelist to the present day. It was only the representatives of system poetry (analysis of language material, text generation based on mathematical processes), inspired by French structuralism and post-structuralism, who finally turned away from modernist art concepts by turning against subject, authorship and the concept of the work in their autopoetically generated texts. Authors as diverse as Hans-Jørgen Nielsen (* 1941, † 1991), Klaus Høeck (* 1938), Peter Laugesen (* 1942), Dan Turèll (* 1946, † 1993) and v. a. Per Højholt and Inger Christensen contributed to the international reputation of the Danish post-war avant-garde. Corresponding prosaic experiments were provided by S. Å. Madsen, Vagn Lundbye (* 1933) and Henrik Bjelke (* 1937, † 1993). In contrast, T. Hansen and T. Skou-Hansen represent  the European documentary novel. In addition to experimental trends, the 1960s and 70s were characterized by political commitment. With (auto) biographical descriptions or confessional novels, Tove Ditlevsen (* 1917, † 1976), Jette Drewsen (* 1943), Vita Andersen (* 1942, † 2021), Dea Trier Mørch (* 1941, † 2001) and Suzanne Brøgger (* 1944) use literature for emancipatory purposes.

Contemporary literature (since 1980)

The 1980s were marked by a return to aesthetic issues and large narrative forms. The classic modern novel was linked, inter alia, to Poul Vad (* 1927, † 2003) and Peer Hultberg (* 1935, † 2007). P. Høeg celebrates European successes with his novels, which combine philosophical and ethical questions with popular forms of depiction of crime literature.

The youngest generation of Danish authors – i.a. Peter Adolphsen (* 1974), Solvej Balle (* 1962), Kirsten Hammann (* 1965), Helle Helle (* 1965) and Christina Hesselholdt (* 1962)  - is characterized by minimalist art concepts (mostly concentrated short prose). Whereas in the 1980s, with Henrik Nordbrandt (* 1945) and Pia Tafdrup, poetry found its way back to a metaphor-rich modernism or addressed the big city experiences (Søren Ulrik Thomsen, * 1956; Michael Strunge, * 1958, † 1986), contemporary poets are more concerned with philosophically distant language experiments (including Niels Lyngsø, * 1968; Simon Grotrian, * 1961).

So far, three Danish writers have received the Nobel Prize for Literature: K. Gjellerup, H. Pontoppidan (both 1917) and J. V. Jensen (1944).

Denmark Literature

Emigration to Russia

Emigration to Russia

Area: 17,075,400 km² (excluding Crimea)
17,102,344 km² (including Crimea)
Population: 144,526,636 (excluding Crimea)
146,877,088 (including Crimea) in 2018
Population density: 8 E / km² (excluding Crimea)
8.6 E / km² (with Crimea)
Form of government: Federal Republic
System of Government: Semi-presidential system
Neighboring countries: Norway, FinlandEstoniaLatvia, Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Mongolia, ChinaLithuania and Poland (neighbors of the Kaliningrad exclave)
Capital: Moscow National
language: Russian
51% Russian Orthodox,
7% Muslims,
0.1% Jehovah’s Witnesses
Currency: Ruble (RUB)
1 ruble = 100 kopecks
Exchange rates:
1 EUR = 88.306 RUB
100 RUB = 1, 13 EUR
1 CHF = 81.349 RUB
100 RUB = 1.228 CHF
(rate from 13.07.2021)
Telephone area code: +7
Time zone: CET +1 to +11

In 2020, 1,475 Germans officially emigrated to the Russian Federation and 3,194 came back to their homeland. Within the 10 years from 2010 to 2019, 22,534 Germans officially emigrated to Russia and 40,203 moved back to Germany. Over 400,000 Germans or Russian Germans still live in Russia, many in Moscow and St. Petersburg and the majority (Russian Germans) in Siberia. In Moscow there is even a residential area for Germans only.

The population in Russia is declining, which, according to UN estimates, will require two million foreign workers annually over the next few years (more information on the increasing trend towards emigration of young Russians). In 2017, 8.1% of the population were migrants, most of whom came from the former Soviet republics of Central Asia and the Caucasus, but some also from Africa and Southeast Asia. According to Countryaah, Russia is one of countries starting with R.

Russian is the only official language. At the same time, however, the respective vernacular is often used and promoted as the second official language in the individual autonomous republics.

Travel and Visa

Changed travel regulations during and after the corona pandemic

Entry is permitted for German nationals and for citizens of other countries with an unlimited residence permit for Germany (original submission required) as well as diplomatic and service passport holders arriving by direct flight from Germany and certain other countries, including Finland, Greece and Switzerland. In addition, travelers must be in possession of a valid Russian visa.

Entry restrictions apply to entry by other means, in particular across the land border and by air from other countries. Entry on these routes is only possible for accredited employees of diplomatic missions and consular institutions of foreign countries and their family members, drivers in international road traffic, the crews of aircraft, sea and inland vessels, train crews in international rail traffic, employees of the courier service between the governments and members official delegations, as well as persons with diplomatic, official or regular private visas issued in connection with the death of a close relative.

Also exempt from the entry ban are people who enter the country as family members (spouses, parents, children, adoptive parents or children), guardians or carers of Russian nationals with identity documents recognized in this capacity with visas, people who enter for medical treatment and people who Have a permanent residence in the Russian Federation.

Even technicians who want to enter the country for the commissioning and maintenance of systems manufactured abroad are not subject to the entry ban. Highly qualified specialists with work permits and their family members can re-enter. The website of the German-Russian Chamber of Commerce in Moscow provides further information on the approval procedure required for these last two groups.

Emigration to Russia

Foreigners must provide proof of a negative PCR test when boarding a plane destined for Russia, even if they only want to travel through in transit. This also applies to those who have recovered and who have been vaccinated. The test must not have been taken earlier than three calendar days prior to the arrival of the aircraft in Russia. The test result must be printed out in Russian or English and presented at the border control. Foreigners can be obliged to take random COVID-19 tests when entering the Russian airport.

For other types of entry, the test result must be presented to the border control. Foreigners who travel to Russia for gainful purposes are then obliged to self-isolate in their home for 14 days. This also applies to people who live in the same household. The responsible Russian diplomatic mission abroad can provide more information on the entry requirements.

Travel across the land border of the Russian Federation, including the border to Belarus, is restricted for travelers. There are some exceptions. Germans are generally allowed to travel to Germany through EstoniaFinlandLithuania and Poland in transit with their own vehicle or organized collective transport. The land border between Latvia and Russia is currently closed. In individual cases, foreigners with a permanent residence permit in Russia were refused permission to cross the Russian land border.

General provisions for travel and residence

All EU citizens need a visa to enter Russia, which must be applied for at the Russian embassy before entering the country. The passport must be valid for at least 6 months when applying for the visa. The most important types of visas are listed below.

Business visa (up to a maximum of 3 months)

This visa is issued for business trips to Russia and is also mandatory for attending commercial events. As a rule, the first application for this visa is issued for a period of three months. Thereafter, multiple-entry visas are also possible for up to twelve months.

A business visa is only issued on the basis of an invitation from a natural or legal person from Russia. With this visa you cannot pursue regular employment (there is also the work visa). A business visa cannot be converted into a work visa, unless you leave the country for a short period of time.

A business visa is required for the following activities:

  • Business meetings or conducting negotiations
  • Extension or conclusion of business contracts
  • Market research
  • Participation in auctions, exhibitions and similar events
  • Installation, maintenance or repair of imported equipment in Russia

Business visa holders cannot stay in Russia for more than 90 days within a 180-day period.

Work visa (up to a maximum of 3 years)

This visa is mainly suitable for workers who want to work in Russia. The regular work visa is valid for one year. In the case of highly qualified foreign experts, the validity can be extended up to 3 years.

The number of entries and exits is unlimited for holders of a work visa within the period of its validity. An extension of the work visa can be obtained during the stay in Russia. The employer will apply for a work visa.

The following documents are required:

  • Invitation from the employer
  • Visa application form
  • Biometric passport photos
  • Valid international health insurance

Health insurance is compulsory in Russia. Accordingly, proof of health insurance coverage must be presented when applying for a visa. An unlimited possibility HERE.

Other types of visas are described in more detail on the website of the Russian Embassy.

Finland Travel Overview

Finland Travel Overview


Official name of the state

Republic of Finland.




As a country starting with F defined by Countryaah, Finland, the seventh largest country in Europe, borders Sweden to the northwest, Norway to the north and the Russian Federation to the east. The Gulf of Bothnia (west coast of Finland) and the Gulf of Finland (south coast) belong to the Baltic Sea. There are around 80,000 islands off the coast (most of them on the south and south-west coast), inland there are 188,000 lakes with a further 98,000 islands, the largest lake district in Europe.

10% of the land consists of water, 69% are forest areas and 8% are used for agriculture. Pine, fir and birch forests predominate in the south and south-west of the country. In the far north, in Lapland, the trees are sparser and dwarf birches predominate. In the center of the country you will find mountainous regions, here is the 1328 m high Haltiatunturi – the highest mountain in Finland.


Republic since 1919. Constitution from 1919, last amendment 1999. Unicameral parliament (Eduskunta / Riksdag) with 200 members. Direct election of the head of state every 6 years. Independent since 1917 (separation from Russia). Finland is a member of the EU.

Head of state

Sauli Niinistö, since March 2012.

Head of government

Juha Sipilä, since May 2015.


230 V, 50 Hz. No adapter required.

Time zone

Eastern European Time: CET +3 (CET +4 from March 26 to October 29, 2017)

Finland Travel Overview



The official languages are Finnish (91.2%), Swedish (5.5%) and in some parts of northern Finland also Sami. A minority speak Russian. English and German are widely spoken.



Jewelry, Ryijy hand-woven carpets, furniture, glass, porcelain, ceramics and fabrics are just some of the handicrafts Finland is known for. The shopping center in the basement of Helsinki Central Station is open Mon-Fri 8 a.m.-10 p.m. (Sundays and public holidays 12 p.m.-10 p.m.). In the port of Katajanokka you can buy glassware, porcelain, natural wood articles and fabrics. Duty-free shopping: Travelers who do not live in Scandinavia or EU countries can claim VAT back when they leave the country. The shops issue special vouchers that can be redeemed at the following customs offices: Helsinki, Turku, Tampere, Mariehamn, Vaasa and Rovaniemi airports; on the ferries of the Silja Line, Viking Line, Vaasaferries and Polferriesand at the border crossings to Sweden, Norway and Russia.

Shop opening times:
Mon-Fri 9 a.m.-6 p.m., Sat 9 a.m.-3 p.m. From June to August most shops are open Mon-Fri 9 am-9pm, Sat 9 am-6pm and also on Sundays.




Most hotels and motels are modernly equipped, all usually have saunas and many also have a swimming pool. Room prices vary from region to region, hotels are the most expensive in Helsinki and Lapland. The service is usually included in the hotel bill (15%). Advance booking is recommended in summer. The tourist office can provide detailed information. With Finncheque-Hotel vouchers, which are available from certain travel agencies outside Finland, can be used to travel from hotel to hotel during the summer (May 12th – September 30th). They are particularly recommended for those traveling by car and can be redeemed in over 100 hotels. There are three different categories (see below). Only the first night can be booked in advance, the next hotel room can be booked free of charge in the hotel of the previous day. Less comprehensive hotel check systems from other providers offer similar discounts. Numerous hotels offer discounts for weekend guests or groups. Details from the Tourist Office or the Association of Finnish Hotels and Restaurants, Merimiehenkatu 29, SF-00150 Helsinki. Tel: (09) 622 02 00. For hotel reservations in Helsinki and the surrounding area: Helsinki Expert,Lönnrotinkatu 7 B, SF-00120 Helsinki. Tel: (09) 22 88 12 00. (Internet:

There is a surcharge for extra beds. Young people under the age of 15 who do not need an extra bed stay for free.

Summer hotels:
During the university summer holidays (June 1 – Aug 31), rooms in student residences are rented to vacationers. These modern and clean quarters are called »summer hotels«. They are cheaper than hotels and are available in all major cities.

The standard is generally high, the categories are based on the Finncheque system. Category I (high prices) and Category IIoffer accommodation in double rooms with breakfast (mostly buffet) and room service. In category III there is a packed meal available that you can put together yourself. Information from: Finnish Hotel and Restaurant Association, Merimiehenkatu 29, SF-00150 Helsinki. Tel: (09) 622 02 00.


There are around 350 campsites, around 200 of which are affiliated with the Finnish Tourism Association (blue and white sign with a tent in a C). The best time for a camping holiday is between May / June and August / September, depending on whether you are in the south or north of the country. Many campsites also rent huts for 2-6 people with cooking facilities and refrigerators, some with heating, washing facilities and toilet. Campsites are divided into five categories. The prices depend on the respective category and are calculated per family. Cooking and washing facilities are also included in the price. There are around 300 campsites with electrical power available for caravans. Top camping spotsare leisure centers and amusement parks for the whole family with attractive children’s entertainment programs for the high season in July.

Camping outside of campsites is only permitted with special permission from the property owner. Holders of an international camping card (FICC) do not need a Finnish camping card. A list of all campsites is available in bookstores and R-kiosks in Finland. The Camping & Hostels brochure can be requested free of charge from the Finnish National Tourist Board. The Finnish Campers Association can be reached at the following address: Tulppatie 14, SF-00880 Helsinki. Tel: (09) 47 74 07 40. (Internet:

Other accommodation options

There are around 105 youth hostels (Finnhostels). Some of them are only open in summer. Approx. 50 youth hostels are available all year round. Some of the hostels serve as student dormitories during the semester. There are four categories depending on the equipment. In addition to dormitories, there are also »family rooms« (2-4 beds). Meals are generally not served, but refreshments and coffee are available, and some hostels also have cooking facilities. There is no age limit. Bed linen can be borrowed. Discounts for holders of the international youth hostel card. The Camping & Hostels brochure with a list of all Finnhostels is available free of charge from the Finnish National Tourist Board. Further information from the Finnish Youth Hostel Association:Suomen Retkeily Magagärgestö (SRM RY), Yrjönkatu 38B-15, SF-00100 Helsinki. Tel: (09) 565 71 50. (Internet:
Rooms with breakfast, half board or full board are available on over 500 farms. Most of the farms are near lakes or rivers; the guest rooms are often simple but clean, and a family bathroom is available. Full board, half board or bed and breakfast are possible. Some farms offer guest houses or holiday apartments with refrigerators and cooking facilities for self-catering.
Full board consists of two main meals, coffee twice a day and a sauna twice a week; Children receive a 50-75% discount. Most of the farms are in central and eastern Finland, some are also on the coast and on the Åland Islands. Categories: 1-5 stars.



82.5% Lutherans, 1.1% Russian Orthodox, other Christian denominations (1.1%) as well as Jewish and Muslim minorities.

Social rules of conduct

Manners: Shake hands to greet you. The forms of politeness hardly differ from those in the rest of Europe. On formal occasions, guests should wait for the host’s kippis or skol (“cheers”) before drinking. Casual clothing is appropriate in most cases.

Tip: The hotel bill already includes 15% service charge. Restaurants and bars charge 14% service charge on weekdays and 15% on weekends and public holidays. A tip of 1-2 € is appropriate for hotel porters and cloakroom storage. Taxi drivers, hairdressers and toilet staff do not expect tips.

Smoking: There is an absolute ban on smoking in restaurants. Smoking is only permitted on terraces and in rooms in which no food and drinks are served. Smoking is also prohibited on public transport and in the vicinity of minors.


Best travel time

Moderate climate, but strong temperature fluctuations. Warm in summer; mild weather in spring and autumn. Very cold winter (November – mid-March). In the north, snowfall from mid-October to mid-May, during the short arctic summer the sun shines for up to 16 hours a day. Heavy snowfall in winter. July is the warmest month in Helsinki with an average of 17.7 ° C. In the north it stays dark for two months in winter. The best travel time for summer vacationers is in the months of June and July and winter sports enthusiasts will find the best conditions for their favorite winter sports in Finland from February to mid-April.


Area code +358 Area (square km) 338 145 Population 5476922 Population density (per square km) 16 Population in 2015 Member of the EU Yes main emergency number 112

Places to Visit in Ireland

Places to Visit in Ireland

You must experience these in Ireland


Powerscourt is high on the list for many of the visitors who travel to Ireland – and for good reason. Powerscourt Townhouse is an enchanting English-style country house with an absolutely stunning garden that was voted the world’s third most beautiful by National Geographic.

When visiting Powerscourt Townhouse on trips to Ireland, you can explore the site’s 47 acres of land, which consists of a mix of gardens, lakes, waterfalls and historic buildings. Here you will find, for example, Ireland’s highest waterfall, which is named after the area.

Powerscourt is located south of Dublin and can be experienced on the way to the Wicklow Mountains on trips to Ireland. The area is huge so you can easily get a whole day to go in the gardens. If you do not have a whole day for the purpose, then it may be a good idea to prioritize what you want to see.

JB Malon Memorial

The JB Malon Memorial is a memorial stone erected in honor of the man behind the Wicklow route, John James Bernard (‘JB’) Malone. JB Malon was an officer who, as a young man, began exploring the Wicklow Mountains and is responsible for many of the routes that exist today.

From the JB Malon Memorial you can enjoy some of Ireland’s most spectacular views. From the memorial stone you can, among other things, enjoy the view of Lough Tay, which is one of Ireland’s most enchanting and popular mountain lakes.

The JB Malon Memorial can also serve as a good starting point if you want to venture out on the Wicklow route. On trips to Ireland, the memorial stone can also be reached by car, where it is only 300 meters from the nearest car park.

Wicklow windows

South of Dublin you will find the Wicklow route, which is one of Ireland’s most popular walking routes. The route covers the largest highland area in Ireland and offers an abundance of beautiful scenery that takes you through local villages, mountains and mountain lakes.

The route was opened back in 1980 and is therefore one of Ireland’s oldest marked hiking routes. The route stretches over 132 km, where you pass some of the most beautiful and best preserved Irish nature – including the waterfall at Powerscourt Townhouse and the mountain lake Lough Tay.

On trips to Ireland, the starting point of the route can be reached in just 1.5 hours from Dublin Airport, and is, along with the enchanting scenery, the reason for its popularity. The strategic location of the route therefore makes it easy to combine a city break with hiking on trips to Ireland.

Lough Tay

Lough Tay is probably one of the most photographed places in the Wicklow region – and with good reason: the magnificent mountain lake with the cliffs behind it is a fantastic sight that you must not deceive yourself on when traveling to Ireland.

Lough Tay Lake is also known as “Guinness Lake” as the area is owned by the Guinness family. The approximate black waters of the mountain lake can almost lead the thirsty hiker to believe that the lake is filled with Guinness.

The lake is located on private territory and therefore it is not possible to experience it up close on trips to Ireland. On the other hand, on Ireland trips you can enjoy the view of the lake from, among other things, the JB Malon memorial stone, which you will find along the Wicklow route.

Temple Bar

As you travel through the vibrant streets of Dublin on your travels to Ireland, do not deceive yourself into visiting Temple Bar. Temple Bar is highlighted as Dublin’s cultural district and is packed with pubs, galleries and niche shops.

In the Temple Bar district you can get an insight into Ireland’s vibrant pub culture, which you should experience on your Ireland trip. In the neighborhood you will find a number of Dublin’s most popular pubs, where you can sample hundreds of different whiskeys.

Even if you are not into the Irish pub scene, you should still make your way past Temple Bar on trips to Ireland. The neighborhood is a gathering place for Dublin’s culture, and you will therefore find street musicians, markets, exhibitions and galleries.

Temple Bar

Travel to Hiking in Italy

Travel to Hiking in Italy

Hiking in Italy is possibly one of the most varied hiking experiences you can find. Perfect routes are planned and ready. Some take you through majestic mountain passes and impressive Alps with snow on top. Others lead you off winding streets of Rome, Florence or Tuscany.

The experiences range widely; get to the top of an active volcano, visit historic medieval towns or make your way past classic Italian wineries. Hiking in Italy can be a bit of each and it is up to you what you want to get out of the journey. We are ready to guide you.

Great places for hiking in Italy

Hiking in Sicily

The ball outside Italy’s boot tip is an obvious destination if you want to hike in Italy. Sicily, Italy’s probably most famous island, is packed with beautiful, challenging and extremely unique hiking routes.

You set the course yourself – maybe it points to the top of exploding Etna. The aggressive volcano tends to erupt every few years, so you can not get closer to the top than 500 meters.

The volcanic island of Stramboli, which belongs to Sicily, is also an obvious day trip for those who want to strap on their hiking boots. Up to 10 times an hour, a column of golden red magma sprays up from the top of the volcano. Nature shows itself from its most spectacular side, but one must of course approach the area carefully.

Hiking around Mont Blanc

There are many opinions about which mountain is the highest in Europe. But if Mont Blanc does not take this prize, with its 4,810 meters to the top, it can in any case turn out to be Western Europe’s highest mountain. With us you can experience hiking in Italy at the foot of stunning Mont Blanc.

This hike takes you not only to Italy but also to romantic France and beautiful Switzerland . Throughout the route, we are surrounded by snow-capped mountain peaks and a nature worth writing home about. Waterfalls, mountain lakes and sparkling glaciers are constantly replacing each other in the landscape.

We move from high mountain passes to deep valleys and cross green meadows and blueberry fields. Along the way we spend the night in charming mountain villages. Hiking in Italy can be amazingly adventurous!

Hiking in the Cinque Terre

The Italian National Park, Cinque Terre, is a UNESCO World Heritage Site – and with good reason. Hiking in Italy is extremely visual and appealing here, with hiking trails creeping along the mountainside. From here there is a view of the Mediterranean as far as the eye can see.

Hiking in Italy’s Cinque Terre takes you through one cozy village after another. Here the colorful little houses appear in a row. Some balance on the edge of the ocean, while others cling to the steep mountain sides.

Visit the fishing villages of Camogli or Portofino, experience the Gothic monastery of San Fruttuoso, or visit the 14-meter-high statue of Neptune in Monerosso. On the hike between the cities, we move through fragrant lemon groves, olive groves and pine forests.

Hiking in the Dolomites

Winding paths through the majestic Dolomites, give you good conditions for a fantastic hike in South Tyrolean Italy. From Pustertal, where the population is German-speaking, the trip goes south of the Falzarego Pass to Fanes.

New routes take over, and you get past the Dolomites’ “Pearl Lake”. Natural phenomena such as the Pragser Wildsee make hiking in Italy very special. The inner pictures you get from here are confusingly reminiscent of the postcards you can buy in any souvenir shop.

Hiking in the Italian Dolomites takes you through dense pine forests, out into open meadows and into the shade of leaning rock walls. We take the cable car up the steepest rock walls and visit the cozy mountain restaurant, Capanna Alpina. Here is so much to experience.

Hiking in Tuscany

Hiking in Italy is not only reserved for the many mountain passes. City walks in the streets of Italy are a charming and ornate experience. Start your hike in romantic Florence and continue through picturesque Tuscany.

The routes take you across vineyards, lush forests and golden cornfields. We are located past incredible medieval towns such as Castellina in Chianti, here the huge city wall robs a lot of the history that has unfolded exactly where your feet are now planted.

We cross rushing rivers at San Gimignano – the city that also goes under “Tuscany’s Manhattan”. However, the modern skyscrapers have been replaced with impressive medieval buildings and stunning scenery. Hiking in Italy is a varied experience.

Hiking in Tuscany

Questions and answers

When is the best time to go hiking in Italy?

It is possible to hike in Italy at any time of the year. During the summer, it can be just as legally hot to hike for many hours through the dense streets of Italy. Likewise, winter can be bitterly cold and sometimes even impossible if you move from far up in the Alps. Therefore, choose your route according to when you travel – or when you travel according to your route. Feel free to ask us for advice! Read more about weather and climate in Italy .

Does it require equipment to hike in Italy?

It depends on which route you want to go. Most of our routes require only the basic equipment such as a good pair of hiking boots. Feel free to check out our packing lists for trekking and mountaineering , where you can hopefully get smarter.

Can I go hiking in Italy without being accompanied by a guide?

Yes. Some of our routes are self-guided. Here we seek that you are well equipped from home and have the full overview of the route. Likewise, you always have us at Tourist Travel to call if something should arise. Other routes are with guide. You can read more about this when you click on the journey of your dreams.

The Most Beautiful Ice Rinks in Austria

The Most Beautiful Ice Rinks in Austria

Ice skating is one of the most beautiful winter sports activities and is suitable for both young and old. Fortunately, there are numerous ice rinks in Austria that offer a great backdrop and romantic ambience. From the Lunzer See to the famous Viennese Ice Dream, I’ll show you the most beautiful ice rinks our country has to offer.

Anyone who wants to do a few pirouettes on the ice this winter will be spoiled for choice in Austria. Our beautiful country offers numerous ice rinks that are reminiscent of a winter wonderland. Whether in Vienna, Salzburg or Carinthia – I’ll show you the coolest ice rinks that are perfect for a romantic date or a fun family outing.

The most beautiful ice rinks in Austria

Lunzer See, Lower Austria

According to computerdo, the Lunzer See in Lower Austria is not only worth a visit in summer – you can also have a wonderful time here in winter. When the temperatures drop below zero, the natural lake turns into an ingenious ice rink. While you glide over the ice here, you can enjoy the view of the breathtaking landscape and let the great winter scenery work its magic on you. Incidentally, the small Maiszinken ski area is located above Lake Lunzer See and is particularly suitable for family outings. There are a total of three runs of all levels of difficulty as well as a magic carpet for children.

Vienna Ice Skating Club, Heumarkt

In the middle of Vienna’s city center, you can do your pirouettes on one of the world’s oldest ice rinks. The Vienna Ice Skating Club was founded in 1867 and since then has attracted both locals and numerous tourists who can put their ice skating skills to the test. Regardless of whether you want to glide comfortably over the ice, try a few daring turns or play ice hockey – everyone gets their money’s worth here. With 6,000m2, the ice rink is also one of the largest open-air artificial ice rinks in Europe.

Mozartplatz, Salzburg

The Mozartplatz in Salzburg is a popular destination for ice princes and princesses every winter. Between November and January there is an ice skating rink that inspires young and old alike. A special highlight is the winter lounge, which is also accessible to non-ice skaters and has a cozy atmosphere. Here you can warm up in between and toast with a delicious punch from Treml.

Rathausplatz, Vienna

One of the most beautiful ice rinks in Austria is located in the capital and everyone should be familiar with it. The Vienna Ice Dream on Rathausplatz attracts with an impressive backdrop and a distinctive atmosphere. On the approximately 3,000 m² ice rink, you can show off your dance skills to chart songs and enjoy the view of the festively illuminated town hall. In contrast to many other ice rinks, which are only open until January, the ice rink on Rathausplatz is open to visitors until March.

Weissensee, Carinthia

Weissensee, Carinthia

The Weissensee in Carinthia is the largest, permanently frozen natural ice surface in Europe and is perfect for ice skating from December to March. On the 40 cm thick layer of ice you will not only meet ice sports enthusiasts – horse-drawn sleighs also do their laps here. The ice rinks, curling rinks and ice hockey rinks are regularly maintained and prepared by a special team of employees. For those who do not feel so safe on the ice, there is even a natural ice skating school, where you can be trained by professionals. Those who are particularly brave can also try ice diving.

What do you think of my favorite ice rinks in Austria ? Which is your favorite? You are of course also welcome to leave me a comment with your personal tips!

Sightseeing in Cyprus

Sightseeing in Cyprus

Cyprus is an island in the eastern Mediterranean with a long and eventful history. From here you can quickly get to Turkey by ship, and trips to Greece and Egypt are also possible. The capital, Nicosia, is today the only European capital that is divided into two parts: the southern part belongs to the Republic of Cyprus and the northern part belongs to the Turkish Republic of Cyprus.

Likewise, the country is divided into two parts, the north and south. Hence, the people on the island speak Greek and Turkish. In addition to the idyllic nature and beautiful beaches, there are many historical sights, monasteries, castles and Roman ruins on the Mediterranean island.

In the following we present you the most exciting tours, most beautiful attractions and best sights in Cyprus. See map of Cyprus on DigoPaul.

Aphrodite's Rock (Rum Bucolic Ape)

1. Roman ruins of Kourion

Kourion was once the city of the ancient kingdom of the same name. The remains that are still preserved today all date from Roman times. The Roman ruins of Kourion are among the most impressive archaeological sites on the island of Cyprus. One of the most important testimonies of the Roman city is the Greco-Roman amphitheater, built in the 2nd century BC.

The theater is still used for open-air events, especially in summer. In addition, some houses have been excavated in the city, in which well-preserved floor mosaics have been found. In the house of Achilles, for example, mythological scenes are shown and in the house of the gladiators the bloody games are depicted. There is also a thermal bath, a Roman agora and an early Christian basilica.

2. Salamis and the royal tombs

The ruins of Salamis offer further archaeological sights. Most of the ruins in Northern Cyprus date from the late Roman and Byzantine periods. The city is said to have been founded by heroes of the Trojan War. Over time, it became an important center in the Eastern Mediterranean.

Here, too, there is a theater that once had space for 15,000 people, a thermal high school with magnificent marble columns and the remains of two early Christian basilicas. The necropolises represent a special find. It was already known about them, why the area was combed by looters. At the beginning of the excavation in 1957, however, a “royal grave” that had not been plundered was found.

3. Cyprus Blue Lagoon

The Blue Lagoon is a bathing bay between Polis and Paphos. The name comes from the crystal clear water and the pure, white sand. The bay is about ten kilometers from the town of Latchi and can only be reached on foot or by boat. The water should turn into a dark blue at certain times and then into a bright turquoise, depending on the sunlight.

The average depth of the water is one to one and a half meters, and you can wade through the water up to 80 meters in a relaxed manner. The Blue Lagoon is one of the most popular sights of Cyprus, there are always boats from Latchi to the beach. The idyllic Latchi is also worth a visit.

4. Ómodos in the Tróodos Mountains

Ómodos is a tranquil little village with only a few hundred inhabitants, located on the southern slope of the Tróodos Mountains. The village is one of the most beautiful sights in Cyprus. Ómodos is surrounded by numerous vines and is also famous for its knitting.

In the center there is an old and beautifully designed monastery. Incidentally, it is worth taking a hike through the entire Tróodos Mountains. In the many small towns there are traditional and beautifully decorated churches. It’s a great opportunity to explore the interior of Cyprus.

5. Kolóssi Castle

Kolóssi is a medieval castle near the village of the same name. It was built in 1210 by the Knights of the Order of St. John and served as the Grand Master’s quarters. The current shape is based on the reconstruction by the Grand Master Louis de Magnac. The square castle is 23 meters high and the walls are 2.5 meters thick. The castle is entered via a drawbridge, an ornamental cast bay window protects the entrance to the interior.

The entrance leads directly to the dining room. From there you can inspect the rest of the Kolóssi rooms: the dining room, the living rooms, the kitchen. A staircase leads to the flat roof. There is an old mill and a sugar factory nearby, as well as a small church that used to serve as a castle chapel for the knight.

Aphrodite's Rocks, Cyprus

6. St. Hilarion Castle

The Byzantines also built their castles on Cyprus. First a hermit settled here in Northern Cyprus. Then a church was built here, finally a monastery and in 10/11. In the 19th century, the Byzantines built a fortress here. The complex, which was popularly known as the “Castle of 1000 chambers”, was supposed to guard the pass road from Kyrenia to Nicosia.

In 1191 St. Hilarion was conquered by the crusaders and finally handed over to the Franks. In the 13th century it was converted into a summer residence. The castle offers an excellent view over the sea. When the weather is good, the ships can be seen leaving the Turkish side. In addition to the view and the historical ruins, there is also a museum up here.

7. Karpaz Peninsula

The Karpaz peninsula in northern Cyprus is an insider tip for nature lovers. Here you can hike extensively in largely untouched nature. Then there are the peaceful beaches. The peninsula is still largely undecided in terms of tourism, but to explore the peninsula you have to bring some initiative and a thirst for adventure yourself.

Karpaz is a very sparsely populated area with a varied landscape. A highlight is the “Golden Beach” of Karpaz, one of the most picturesque sights of Northern Cyprus and at the same time the most beautiful bathing beach in the northern half. In addition to the largest population of turtles, there is also a breeding facility for the endangered animals, which can be visited.

8. Akámas Peninsula

If you want to go to the west of Cyprus and still want to roam through nature, you should visit the Akámas Peninsula. For a long time this part of the country was almost untouched. Almost no buildings were built here, and no tourists visited the area. 186 species of birds, 16 species of butterflies, monk seals, snakes and other species of reptiles cavort on the Akámas Peninsula.

Many species are not found anywhere else in Cyprus. The flora is also more than interesting, especially cypress and eucalyptus trees grow here. The Akámas peninsula is above all a popular destination for hikers and mountain bikers who want to enjoy nature far from the beaten tourist paths.

9. Paphos – City of Culture

The city of Paphos can look back on a long history. Supposedly here, near the rock of Aphrodite, the Greek goddess of love rose from the sea. Since the 15th century BC The city was settled, later captured by the Romans, plundered by the Arabs and finally conquered again by the Crusaders. Then it withered into a sleepy fishing village.

Until once Roman mosaics were found in the ground. Due to the restructuring of Cyprus after the division, the country’s second largest airport was built here. Today Paphos is the island’s first capital of culture. Many relics from Roman times could be found, the Ptolemaic royal tombs of Nea Paphos are among the exciting sights.

10. Kýkko Monastery in the Tróodos Mountains

The Kýkkos Monastery is located at an altitude of 1100 meters in the Tróodos Mountains. The monastery was founded in the 11th century by the hermit Isaias after this hermit cured the then governor Manuel Voutoumetes of gout. As a thank you, the hermit received an icon of Mary from Constantinople, which is said to have been made by the Evangelist Luke himself.

The icon is still in the monastery today, covered by a wooden board with silver and gold fittings. This jewelry was a gift from the Byzantine emperor himself. Even today, the magnificent monastery attracts pilgrims from the Orthodox world. At the same time, the complex and the museum, in which many religious artefacts are exhibited, can also be visited as a tourist.

Touching sunset (Tobias Van Der Elst)





A trip from Finland to Poznan

There are no direct flights from Finland to Poznan, but the Polish airline LOT offers a daily connection to Poznan from Warsaw. Exchange flights can be obtained quite cheaply, for about one hundred euros one way. A combination of separate flights can also work, as LOT often sells domestic flights in Poland at a special price.

A practical way to travel to Poznan is by train. The city is a train hub to Berlin and halfway between Warsaw. From both metropolises, the city can be reached by train several times a day. The journey takes about three hours. There is also a direct train connection from Gdansk. An internal Polish train ticket costs about 10-30 euros, depending on the type of train.

Accommodation in Poznan

Accommodation in Poznan is quite comprehensive, from hostels to five-star hotels. Many of the accommodations are fairly new, and most of the offerings are from mid-range hotels. Usually, the accommodation is located either in the city center or in its immediate vicinity.

The city’s comprehensive tram network works well, and ticket machines can be used in English. In particular, it should be noted that drivers do not sell tickets in Poznan.



Historic Poznan has two hearts

The historical sights of Poznań are largely located in the area of ​​the smaller Old Town. Historic Poznan has two hearts: the Old Town Square Stary Rynek and the Cathedral Island Ostrów Tomski, located a few kilometers from the square.

The center is also dominated by German architecture, home to many important sights, such as the university and the castle built in the early 20th century for the visit of the German emperor. The main attractions of the city center are explored on foot during the day.

The two-tower cathedral on the Cathedral Island is the oldest in Poland. The building was originally completed as early as the 9th century, but the layout has been modified several times. The current, Gothic façade dates from a post-war repair.

The cathedral is at its best in the evening, when the east side of the island offers a stunning view towards the spectacularly lit church building.

Renaissance-style square Stary Rynek

According to DigoPaul, Poznan’s most famous landmark, the Town Hall Ratusz is the heart of the Old Town. The building dominates the Old Town Square, which represents the Italian Renaissance style from the 16th century and is one of the most beautiful in northern Central Europe.

Every day at 12 noon, a group of tourists gather in front of the town hall to watch a special tradition: two mechanical goats step out of the front wall, accompanied by a trumpet, knocking their heads together several times.

Traces of the war in Poznan

The Germans built one of the largest fortification systems in Europe in Poznan in the 19th century. During World War II, the forts were largely destroyed, but here and there are restored parts of the fortress left.

The main remains of the fortress are Fort VII, which served as the Gestapo prison and concentration camp, and Cytadela Park, where the strongest part of the German fortress was located. Today, Cytadela has a war museum, monuments to Soviet soldiers, and military cemeteries, among others. Fort VII, on the other hand, serves as a concentration camp museum.

Relax and shop in Poznan

As a major student city, Poznan’s nightlife is lively. The numerous clubs and bars in the Old Town area are filled with banquets in the evenings. Especially on Wrocławska Street, there is plenty of choice from cheap shot bars to elegant clubs.

Nightclubs are worth a visit because Polish young people are uninhibited and skilled dancers. Even if you don’t dare go along yourself, following it can be an experience.

A must-see in the city’s numerous shopping malls is the Old Brewery in the city center, Stary Browar, housed on the premises of a former brewery and offering a special setting for shopping. In 2005, the center was voted the best medium-sized shopping center in the world. Shoes and clothes are often cheap for Finns.

Beer lovers will be attracted by a visit to the Lech Brewery on the east side of the city. An English-language tour can be booked for a small group, there is no minimum. The tour lasts about two hours, and finally we taste the beers.

Moscow Travel Guide

Moscow Travel Guide

A major city in the heart of Russia

Moscow is the historical, cultural, religious and political center of Russia. The heart of the wild capital is the Kremlin, which dates back to the 15th century, and the Red Square. The rest of the city is built around the Kremlin in Europe on the basis of a rare circular pattern.

The center of Moscow is a diverse, vast and varied area with a considerable number of theaters, museums, restaurants, nightclubs and shopping malls. There is plenty to go around the clock, and there is certainly no stopping the traveler in between.


Also outside the city center, Moscow offers a variety of attractions. The city’s parks and monasteries in particular are well worth a visit. Likewise, the Ostankino TV tower, one of the tallest structures in the world, and the All-Russian Exhibition Center, originally built to showcase the achievements of the Soviet Union, are great places to visit.

Moscow’s various attractions are reached by metro, whose stations are famous for their beauty. The stations, built during the Soviet era, are incredibly decorative and full of art, like the little sights themselves.

The Moskva River, which crosses Moscow, brings a distinctive atmosphere to the city.

Summer is the best time to travel

According to DigoPaul, Moscow is a great destination all year round, but at its best the city is in the summer, when temperatures are approaching heat readings. The best weather is from June to August, but in spring and autumn, for example, in Moscow you can enjoy a heat of almost 20 degrees.

Winters are cold in Moscow. The thermometer will sink to the side of the frost in December at the latest, and in January the frost may be as high as ten degrees.

Book a reasonable budget

Moscow is an expensive tourist city, the price level of which is visible to the tourist especially in accommodation. A budget holiday is also successful in Moscow, but a traveler looking for quality must prepare with a plush budget for a city holiday.

The diverse city offers almost endless possibilities. Stunning cultural sites are at the heart of the city, but Moscow is also a great shopping destination, a great food city, and full of interesting architectural details. The city also hosts numerous sporting events.

A diverse cultural destination

Moscow’s cultural life is especially known for its legendary Bolshoi Theater. The Bolshoi is housed in a building dating back to 1824, whose ornate interiors lead visitors to a different world.

Bolshoi’s ballet or opera performances in particular, which can be followed even without proficiency in the Russian language, are a must-have experience for anyone culturally hungry.

Due to the great popularity of the Bolshoi Theater, tickets should be purchased well in advance, either through a travel agency or through ticket sales on the Bolshoi website. Teatralnaya Kassa ticket kiosks sell theater tickets on site in Moscow.

Museums and history

Like St. Petersburg, Moscow is a city of museums.

Of the museums, especially the Tretyakov Gallery, one of the largest art museums in Europe, and the Pushkin Art Museum are interesting places to visit. The Bulgakov Home Museum, on the other hand, serves friends of literature and history.

Of the other museums in Moscow, many different museums of literature and theater, as well as museums presenting the history of Russia and Moscow, are excellent.

Unfortunately, in many museums, the signs are only in Russian.

The Moskva River

Sports, music and circus

Moscow’s cultural offer is enhanced by a good music offer.

Friends of the classical are pampered by the Moscow Philharmonic Orchestra, for example. Light music listeners, on the other hand, find various concerts every day in bars and music clubs. The city’s concert offerings are comprehensively listed weekly in The English Times.

Another circus suitable for tourists in Moscow is represented by, for example, two circuses and the city’s internationally high-quality football and hockey teams.

Shopping and gifts

Moscow is a diverse but in many places expensive shopping city. An absolute must-see is the traditional and expensive GUM department store on the edge of the Red Square.

Particularly good places for shopping are the versatile Tverskaya Street with its side streets and the Old Arbat pedestrian street. Typical Russian gift items, such as Maatuska dolls, fur caps or samovars, can be obtained from Old Arbat. Tverskaya, on the other hand, is of more interest to fashion shoppers.

If you have enough time in Moscow, it’s a good idea to research and compare the selections and prices of different stores carefully – the differences can be huge. Especially in Old Tea gift shops, the comparison is worthwhile.

The city of parks

Lively and congested Moscow surprises the tourist with the abundance of parks: in total there are more than a hundred parks and gardens.

Moscow parks are located in different parts of the city. Many of them are not only nice places to relax but also major sights with their value buildings. The parks are good places to visit because you can see local life at its most authentic.

Moscow’s most famous parks include Izmailov Park, which is many times larger than New York’s Central Park, and Kolomenskoye Park, whose historic church from the 16th century is a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

Those more interested in plants can visit the city’s botanical garden, founded by Peter the Great in the 18th century.

A tremendous All-Russian exhibition center

The VDNH Exhibition Center, or All-Russian Exhibition Center, is a huge area in the northern part of Moscow and is especially suitable for tourists looking for Soviet nostalgia.

The region was established to showcase the country’s finest achievements in various fields during the Soviet era. In all, there are about 400 buildings in the area, many of which are pavilions dedicated to certain things.

Buildings that have previously showcased the achievements of socialism have ironically been put to use by the market economy. Most of the buildings have shops. Today’s Russians are happy to head to the exhibition center for a picnic.

The exhibition center is located in the Ostankino area, which also houses a huge monument to the conquest of space and the Museum of Cosmonautics dedicated to the conquest of space, a TV tower of more than 500 meters and the massive Kosmos Hotel built for the 1980 Olympics.


Estonia Major Cities

Estonia Major Cities



The university city of Tartu was mentioned in a document as early as 1030, making it the oldest city in the Baltic countries. The second largest city in Estonia is located on the banks of the Emajõgi. Tartu, formerly also called Dorpat, is the spiritual center of Estonia and offers a wide range of cultural activities. Museums, theaters, concerts and festivals can be visited here. In 1869 the first Estonian song festival took place in Tartu. Art and science are omnipresent.

The University of Tartu was founded in 1632, making it one of the oldest universities in Northern Europe. Numerous students still shape the cityscape today. The magnificent, classicist main building of the university was built at the beginning of the 19th century. In the auditorium there are conferences and, thanks to the very good acoustics, concerts.

The early classicist town hall from 1786 is located on the market square, the center of the city. It is already the third building; its predecessors were destroyed by fires. Here is also the fountain where you have met the kissing students since 1998 – the sculpture has meanwhile become a Tartu landmark. Restaurants and cafes are lined up along the market square. Here you can stop and fortify yourself for the further tour. The Café Pierre Chocolaterie, for example, offers a wonderful ambience and delicious (chocolate) cakes. Those who like to experiment can try a hot chocolate with Gorgonzola and grappa.

Toompea is on the back of the university and town hall. The ruins of the cathedral now house the History Museum of the University of Tartu. In the surrounding park there are monuments of famous citizens. Via the Angel’s Bridge or the Devil’s Bridge you can continue to the observatory and the anatomical theater. The Domberg allows a wonderful view of the lower town.


The city of Rakvere is especially famous for its order castle. It is located in northern Estonia, only 20 kilometers from the sea and close to the Lahemaa National Park. The first settlements can be traced back to the 2nd to 5th centuries AD. A wooden castle was first mentioned in 1226, which stood on a mountain near the settlement. The ruins of the fortress have expanded throughout history and replaced with a mighty stone castle after the Livonian War. Wesenberg Castle is definitely worth a visit: Here visitors can immerse themselves in the Middle Ages, visit the torture chamber, try their hand at archery and crossbow, try historical dishes, blacksmithing and pottery. An adventure for the whole family!

The sculpture of the aurochs Tarvas is the symbol of the city, it was created by the Estonian sculptor Tauno Kangro. According to legend, it brings happiness to those who touch the animal’s testicles.

Rakvere is also contemporary, as punk and rock music festivals have been held here for some time. The Baltoscandal theater festival is also held here every two years. The central square Rakveres has had its modern appearance since 2004. There is also a sculpture in honor of the citizen Arvo Pärt, an important Estonian composer.



The small town of Viljandi is located in southern Estonia, nestled in a beautiful hilly landscape with old trees and a lake. Viljandi is characterized by the mighty Ordensburg, of which only a ruin remains today. From here you have a wonderful view of the lake. The stone fortress was built in 1224, but was finally completed in the 16th century. It was the largest fortress in Livonia, but was largely destroyed by war. In the old town is the St. John’s Church, which was destroyed in the Livonian War and then rebuilt.

Viljandi is the capital of folk music. A festival is celebrated on the last weekend of July: more than 100 concerts take place in the castle ruins, churches and other places around Viljandi. Other events include the puppet theater festival “Theater im Koffer”, the Hanseatic Days, the Festival for Early Music – there is a lot to experience here for festival fans.

The Olustvere manor is a few kilometers north of Viljandi. The main building is built in Art Nouveau style. The outbuildings offer opportunities to visit: You can see the wool and craft room, the forge and a brandy factory. The mansion complex is embedded in an English-style park.


Pärnu, on the west coast, is the summer capital of Estonia, one of 7 countries starting with E listed on Countryaah. Pretty wooden villas, well-tended parks, picturesque alleys and the long sandy beach characterize the picture and make the seaside resort a popular tourist destination.

Pärnu is known as a place to relax. Since the discovery of healing mud and the opening of the first bathing establishment in the 19th century, spa guests have come to relax here, mainly from Estonia, Finland, Sweden and Germany. The Second World War left its mark on the seaside resort. After the reconstruction, mainly Russians used the advantages of Parnu for recreational purposes.

As for a health resort, the atmosphere in the city is calm and dignified – especially of course in the health resort district along the coast. Among other things, the old Kursaal (built in 1880) – today a restaurant – and the mud baths are located here.

In the city center you can visit the classicist town hall, the baroque Katharinenkirche and the Red Tower, a prison tower built in the 15th century. The Rüütli is the Pärnus shopping street, a pedestrian zone that is wonderful to stroll through.



The coastal resort of Haapsalu is the ideal destination for those looking for relaxation: spa hotels, fresh sea air, a small old town with winding streets and a beautiful, spacious beach. The first medicinal mud bath was opened in Haapsalu as early as 1825, and since then the place has also been valued as a spa by the Russian tsars. Colorful wooden houses, Art Nouveau villas, a peculiar, historic train station, the beautiful Kursaal from 1898 – all of this contributes to Haapsalu’s nostalgic atmosphere.

You can visit the massive cathedral from 1279, the largest single-nave church in the Baltic States. During the Soviet era it was used as a granary. It is located on the site of the old bishop’s castle, which is enclosed by a total of 800 meters of massive wall. The ensemble is located in the middle of the old town.

Anyone who would like to have a souvenir from Haapsalu can purchase a “lace miracle”. The handmade Haapsalus shawls are known under this name. By the way, the illustrator of children’s books Astrid Lindgren, Ilon Wikland, spent her childhood in Haapsalu. In 1944 she emigrated to Sweden.



Narva is the north-eastern outpost of Estonia, it is the border town with Russia and thus also the EU’s external border. In Narva, the ethnic conflicts of Estonia become clear, around 90 percent of the population here are Russians, many of whom do not speak Estonian. If they used to live on a lifeline within the Soviet Union, on the bridge over the Narva River, today their city is cut off from Russia.

The Hermannsfeste is Narva’s most important attraction. It was built by the Danes in the 13th century and later served as an order castle. The fortress is very well preserved and can be visited daily. Inside there is a museum about the history of Narva and the fortress. Vis-à-vis the Hermannsfeste, on the right bank of the Narva, is the Russian fortress of Ivangorod from the 15th century.

Saaremaa island

Saaremaa 2

The largest island in Estonia is called Saaremaa and is located in the west of the country. She is also known under the German name Ösel. Stone walls made of boulders, thatched roof houses and post windmills characterize the appearance.

Saaremaa has around 35,000 inhabitants, most of them Estonians. Due to the isolated situation, the Russification policy of the Soviets hardly had any effect here. In addition, Saaremaa was a restricted area during the Soviet era.

The capital of the island, Kuressaare (formerly Arensburg), presents itself with a medieval castle. The almost intact bishop’s castle is located in today’s city park. Towards the end of the 13th century, the “Lange Hermann”, the central tower of the complex, was built. It is believed that there was a first wooden fortress on this site as early as the 11th century. The bishop’s castle now houses a museum on the history of the island.

There are many more interesting places to discover. Angla is in the north of the island. Five of Saaremaa’s famous windmills are located here in a location exposed to the wind. They are a typical image on the island, there should have been several hundred of them once. The Kaali meteorite crater is believed to have formed 4,000 years ago. There are numerous myths surrounding him. And at Viki you can visit the Mihkli farm: an old farm with a forge, windmill and village swing gives an insight into rural life in the past.

Saaremaa and the capital Kuressaare, like so many places on the west coast, are also known for spa stays. The first spa was opened here as early as 1840. Even today it is a popular place for spa and relaxation holidays. If you want to relax a little after an eventful city trip to Tallinn, this is the right place for you.

Nature is characterized by a mild maritime climate and a calcareous soil. This leads to a unique flora and fauna. Many of the plant species found here are under protection, including the rare Saaremaa rattle pot. The animal world is dominated by birds, many migratory birds stop here. In addition to other nature reserves, Saaremaa also has the Vilsandi National Park – a paradise for bird watching.

The journey to Saaremaa is usually made by ferry from the Estonian mainland, but flights from Tallinn are also possible. If you want to use the ferry by car, you should reserve this in advance, especially in the high season, for cultural events and on St. John’s Day. Saaremaa is connected to the neighboring island of Muhu by a dam, which allows you to pass by on foot, by bike or by car.

Hiiumaa Island


With less than 1,000 square kilometers, Hiiumaa is the second largest island in Estonia. It has a long history: Hiiumaa was formed by a meteorite explosion around 455 million years ago, making it one of the oldest islands in the world.

Kärdla is the largest town and capital of Hiiumaa. The green appearance and the calm atmosphere make Kärdla an excellent place for a relaxing holiday. It can best be explored on foot or by bike. The beautiful wooden architecture in the old town, the simple style church and the Pikk Maja museum on the history of Hiiumaas are particularly worth seeing.

Hiiumaa is known for its lighthouses. In Köpu, Ristna and Tahkuna there are three specimens that can be viewed. The massive, stone-built lighthouse of Köpu looks back on 500 years of history.

A visit to the Määvli high moor gives an insight into the island’s nature. The Nuutri River, which flows into the sea near Kärdla, also has its source here. In addition to the wetlands, forests and of course the coast with its long sandy beaches characterize Hiiumaa. Lots of space for relaxation and nature experience! Because of the flat topography and the beautiful landscape, Hiiumaa is ideal for cycling tours. There are various signposted tours all over the island.

The offshore island of Kassari Hiiumaa has developed into a popular holiday area. Hiiumaa can be reached by ferry from Rohuküla on the Estonian mainland or by flight. There is also a ferry connection to Saaremaa. During particularly cold winters, the island is even connected to the mainland by an ice road.

Muhu Island

Only about 2,000 people live on Muhu, the small island wedged between Saaremaa and mainland Estonia. Muhu is known for (art) craft. Many residents used to move across the mainland as traveling craftsmen and helped shape Estonian architecture. In addition, a lot has been and is woven here. Duvets and traditional costumes are the most famous products, they are nicely embroidered after weaving. The local tradition of painting wooden doors in bright colors and adding symbols to them is interesting.


Top 10 Sights in Poland

Top 10 Sights in Poland

You can discover our neighboring country Poland in many ways and immerse yourself in the culture, history and wonderful nature – on a varied round trip, a classic bus trip or individually on a car trip or motorcycle trip along the lonely avenues. You can experience the most important cities in Poland such as Gdansk, Krakow, Warsaw or Wroclaw on one of our city ​​trips . We also offer cycling and hiking tours so that you can actively approach the country. According to Countryaah, Poland is one of the largest countries in Europe continent.

Our Top 10 Sights in Poland

Deep forests and lonely lakes in Masuria meet historical pearls such as Krakow, Warsaw or Gdansk. Poland stands for diversity! We introduce you to the most beautiful national parks, the most beautiful Baltic Sea beaches and the most famous sights in our neighboring country – here are our TOP 10 for Poland.



This imposing cathedral, which was completed in 2004 after ten years of construction and can be seen from afar, is a famous place of pilgrimage throughout Poland that has some superlatives. Not only is it the largest church in Poland and the eighth largest in Europe; At 141.5 m, the cathedral also has the highest tower in Poland and, with 20,000 pipes, the largest organ in the country.



The call of nature beckons here. You can go on a voyage of discovery in one of the last primeval forests in Europe, which was declared Poland’s first national park in 1932 and is listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Here you can experience the lowland forest without human intervention, which is why the biological diversity is overwhelming, and with a little luck you can encounter the gentle giants of the forest – the bison – in their original environment.



Szczecin – today Szczecin – has, like many Polish cities, an eventful past. The university town offers some historical highlights and landmarks, such as the Greifenschloss of the Pomeranian princes. But the hooked terraces also invite you to take a walk along the Oder with a wonderful view of the silhouette of the former Hanseatic city. If you still have some time, you should take a short detour to the Crooked Forest – Krzywy las -, which exudes a mystical atmosphere with its unconventionally shaped pines.



So many landscapes in the smallest of spaces – that is what the Slowinski National Park offers. Whether open Baltic Sea, desert-like sand dunes or secluded forests and calm lagoon lakes. This region leaves no one unimpressed. Take your time and go or let a beach buggy take you to the dunes and let the unadulterated nature work its magic on you. After an eventful day you can strengthen yourself here in the restaurant with delicious Polish dishes.



Warsaw is known for the coexistence of western and eastern cultural influences. The architecture also reflects both the modern and the historical of Warsaw. The special sights of the city include the palace square with the Sigismund column, the royal palace as well as the market square and the churches of the old town. One of the most impressive photo opportunities is the mighty Palace of Culture. The view of the city from here is simply fantastic!



Masuria – the wonderful lake landscape of Poland! In addition to the beautiful nature, the region also offers a lot of culture: In Lötzen (Gizycko), for example, the Boyen fortress and the swing bridge, which is rare in Europe, are worth a visit. Heiligelinde (Swieta Lipka) is a famous pilgrimage site with a baroque Jesuit church. We recommend a visit to the church and especially the organ concert, during which you can admire the moving figures on the organ prospect. Rastenburg (Ketrzyn) or Dönhoffstädt Castle could also be on your program.



After the war damage, the old town of the old Hanseatic city was extensively reconstructed. The imposing Marienkirche, the crane gate on the Mottlau, the Neptune fountain and the right town hall with its splendid interior are worth seeing. The Frauengasse, lined with pretty town houses, leads from St. Mary’s Church to Motlawa. After the tour, enjoy a coffee at the Long Market or on the banks of the Motława River. But also the area with the fashionable Baltic Sea resort of Sopot or the historic Marienburg make Gdansk a perfect starting point for a stopover of several days.



Breslau – today Wroclaw. The city is crossed by numerous arms of the Oder and is therefore often referred to as “Silesian Venice”. The cathedral, the city palace, the ring with its colorful house facades and the Centennial Hall are among the most important sights. But what is unique are the Wroclaw dwarfs. These bronze ones Figures are scattered all over the city and the number is increasing – so go on an exciting and amusing tour of discovery.



Perhaps you dedicate yourself to the wonderful old town and the Wawel Castle, which towers over the historic old town. The Krakow Royal Castle, located on Wawel Hill, is still a silent witness of the splendor of bygone days. With architectural styles from four different epochs, a tour is like a journey through time. The Cloth Hall and St. Mary’s Church with its high altar are located on the medieval market square of Krakow, this is where Krakow’s heart beats. The Jewish quarter of Kazimierz with the old synagogue is also worth exploring. Krakow is the best place to visit our number 1 tourist attraction in Poland:



Zakopane and the High Tatras are not only known for world cup ski jumping. Take advantage of the beautiful mountain scenery for long hikes and walks. Designated hiking trails offer breathtaking views. Zakopane and the surrounding area are also known for the thermal springs. The Zakopane house style typical of the region is unusual. Cozy and artistically decorated wooden architecture give the place a homely atmosphere, which comes into its own especially in the evenings on the Krupowki promenade.

Brief Information About Poland

Brief Information About Poland

Our beautiful neighboring country Poland is a versatile travel destination – from the more than 500 km long Baltic Sea coast to the mountains of the Carpathian Mountains and the Tatra Mountains in the south of the country.

Map of Poland

Masuria is one of the most popular travel destinations in Poland. The region, rich in forests and lakes, is an excellent travel destination for cycling holidays, but also, for example, for combined boat and cycling trips. Small towns like Rössel (Reszel), Heiligelinde (Swieta Lipka), Sensburg (Mragowo), Nikolaiken (Mikolajki) and Lötzen (Gizycko) tell of an eventful history.
In addition, the larger cities of Poland are also interesting and culturally rich destinations. For example the old Hanseatic city of Danzig (Gdansk) with the mighty St. of course the capital Warsaw (Warszawa). Warsaw in particular conveys two very opposite sides to visitors – the modern metropolis Warsaw, but also the city’s past are omnipresent.

Entry requirements
According to Countryaah, Poland belongs to the Schengen states and the European Union. Germans need a valid passport or identity card to enter the country. Children need their own passport (with photo), an entry in the parents’ passport is no longer accepted.

ATMs are particularly common in cities and tourist centers. To be able to withdraw money, you need a credit card or an EC card with the “Maestro” symbol. International credit cards are common. But you cannot necessarily pay with it in all hotels or in smaller shops, this is especially difficult in rural areas. It is therefore advisable to always have enough cash with you.

Time zone

Depending on the region, a warm temperate climate with a maritime or continental influence according to Bridgat.

The official language is Polish. However, tourism workers often speak and understand English. German is also understood in many places.

Telephone / Internet
The international dialing code is +48 according to Allcitycodes.
WLAN is often available in hotels, but also in public places in larger cities.

Electricity & mains voltage
The voltage is 220 to 240 volts, 50 Hz, so that all devices can be used without problems. As a rule, two-pin plugs are used.

Emergency numbers
Police 997
Fire Brigade 998
Ambulance 999

ARRIVAL by plane
Poland’s largest airport is located near Warsaw. Warsaw is served by the Polish LOT, among others, but also by Lufthansa, Eurowings and Wizz Air. Other international airports are located in Krakow, Gdansk, Katowice, Wroclaw and Poznan.

ARRIVAL by land For
those who live in north-east Germany, arriving “by land” is ideal . It is around 600 km from Berlin to Warsaw, around 500 km from Berlin to Gdańsk, and around 700 km from Masuria. The motorways in particular, but also many country roads, are well developed in Poland. In some areas (e.g. Masuria) the streets are sometimes small and narrow, so you need a little longer for a set stage.

The following applies to traveling by car …
The petrol prices in Poland are relatively cheap by our standards. The fuel names are not necessarily identical to “ours”. It is important to choose the correct octane number, 95 stands for super, 98 for super plus. “Unleaded” means “lead-free”, it is sometimes indicated by the addition of an “E”.
Maximum speed in urban areas: 50 (at night 60) km / h
Maximum speed in rural areas: 90 km / h
speed highways / national roads: 100-120 km / h Maximum speed motorway: 140 km / h
Light during the day: all year round
alcohol limit : 0.2
Obligation to carry: Warning triangle
(information without guarantee, please inform yourself about the relevant provisions before departure)

Best travel time
In summer, Poland is ideal for a holiday close to nature or a beach holiday. The Baltic coast or the Masurian lakes are particularly suitable for swimming from June to September. Active travelers and cyclists can also choose the long, mild autumn as their travel time, when the temperatures are still moderate, it is not too hot for activities.
Winter sports enthusiasts also get their money’s worth in Poland. Especially between December and March there are favorable conditions for winter sports in the mountains.

The European health insurance card should be carried with you as proof of EU-wide insurance coverage. A private international travel health insurance is also recommended.
Medical care in Poland from the medical side as well as with regard to pharmacies corresponds to the European standard.
Vacationers who are dependent on medication should stock up on essentials beforehand. In addition, good sun protection as well as mosquito and tick protection belong in the first aid kit.
Before traveling, you should get advice about a vaccination against the tick-borne disease TBE (early summer meningoencephalitis).

Holidays and memorial
days In addition to Christmas, New Year, May 1st and Christian holidays with changing dates such as Easter, Pentecost or Ascension Day, the following holidays apply:
January 6th Epiphany
May 3rd Constitutional Day
August 15th Assumption Day
01 November All Saints Day
11 November Independence Day

Embassies & Consulates General
German Representation
Jazdow 12
00-467 Warsaw
Tel: +48 225841700
Emergency Call: +48 605682347

Austrian Representation
Jurija Gagarina 34
00-748 Warsaw
Tel: +48 2284100-81 / -82 / -83

Swiss Representation
Aleje Ujazdowskie 27
00- 540 Warsaw
Tel: +48 226280481

Flag of Poland

South Europe Travel Guide

South Europe Travel Guide

Canary Islands

Canary Islands


Due to the Gulf Stream, the Canary Islands have a very mild climate all year round with only minor temperature fluctuations. Extreme cold or heat rarely occurs. The summer months can get up to 30 ° C. The lowest rainfall is expected from March to November. In the sometimes high mountains it can get very cool at night.

Best travel time

The winter months and the months in transition to summer are considered the main season. The months June to September offer ideal hiking weather due to the dry weather.

Balearic Islands

Balearic Islands


The Balearic Islands have a temperate subtropical climate with an average of 7.9 hours of sunshine a day. Due to the location of the islands, the short winters are mild and humid. There is seldom snowfall – only in the mountains. In the summer months, however, it hardly rains. The temperatures in the interior of the island can then rise to over 40 ° C. Short, heavy rains are possible from the end of August. From the end of December to January, calm, mild weather conditions are common. The small summers already lead to the famous almond blossom in Mallorca in January.

Best travel time

Spring and autumn are scenic and with mild temperatures – ideal for vacationers with active preferences. Beach holidaymakers prefer the summer months from May to September. The winters are rather calm in Mallorca.



According to Countryaah, Spain is located in southwest Europe and occupies most of the Iberian Peninsula. The country borders France to the north, the Mediterranean Sea to the east, the Strait of Gibraltar to the south, and Portugal and the Atlantic Ocean to the west. The national territory also includes the Balearic Islands, the Canary Islands and the provinces of Melilla and Ceuta in North Africa. The capital is Madrid.


Spain belongs to different climatic zones, especially due to its different altitudes. In the north, for example, there is a mountain climate with snowy winters as well as an Atlantic coastal climate. On the north coast of Spain, the winters are milder, the summer months cool and temperate and there is more rainfall. In the continental, northern part of the interior, very warm, dry summers are expected. In the direction of the Mediterranean, the Mediterranean influence increases. In the subtropical Canary Islands the winters are mild, especially from October to February it rains heavily. Temperatures are pleasant all year round.

Best travel time:

Spain, including its islands, is an attractive year-round destination especially for beach holidays. In winter you can still get plenty of sunshine on the Canaries. For tours in the interior of the country, spring with its pleasant temperature values ​​is more recommended, in the Mediterranean it is often too hot for hiking in summer. Rainfalls can be expected in October.



Portugal is located on the Iberian Peninsula, making it the westernmost state in Europe. It is bounded by the Atlantic Ocean to the west and south and by Spain to the east and north. The westernmost point of the European mainland is therefore in Portugal, at Cabo da Roca. The islands of the Azores and Madeira with Porto Santo also belong to the Portuguese territory.


The Portuguese climate is temperate-maritime with warm summer months and mild winters. The mountainous north-east region shows more continental influences, here the temperatures differ more clearly in the rather dry, hot summer and the cold winters. Maximum summer temperatures of over 30 degrees Celsius show the Mediterranean character of southern Portugal.

Best travel time:

Depending on the region, Portugal is a year-round destination. Skiers can use the mountainous north-east of Portugal. If you want to do without snow, you can also spend the winter in Madeira, the Algarve or the Azores. The transitional months are ideal for sightseeing, the summer brings bathing weather to the northern Portuguese coast from July to August. In the Algarve, however, it can get too hot in midsummer.



Greece is located on the eastern Mediterranean in southern Europe. It is made up of mainland Greece, the Peloponnese peninsula and numerous islands and is surrounded by the states of Albania, Macedonia and Bulgaria in the north, Turkey in the east, the Ionian Sea in the west and the Libyan Sea in the south. The island of Gavdos in the Libyan Sea is the southernmost point of the country and is also geographically the southernmost point of Europe. Besides the mainland with 106,915 km², Greece consists of 3,054 islands with a total of 25,042 km² land area. That is almost 19% of the total area of ​​the country. Only 87 of the islands are inhabited. Despite its strong maritime character, Greece is classified as a mountainous country, as the mountain share is just under 78 percent.


Greece is a prime example of a Mediterranean climate: dry, hot summers and mild winter months alternate. The north and west of Greece are a little more rainy. In winter, snow falls in the mountains.

Best travel time:

If you have no problem with heavier rainfall in autumn and winter, you can travel to Greece all year round. City trips are easy to plan in the transition period between spring and autumn. In summer, bathing holidays on the Mediterranean with pleasant water and warm air temperatures are possible. Sailors make better use of the period from April to October, in the following months there can be storms.

West Europe Travel Guide

West Europe Travel Guide



According to Countryaah, there are 9 countries in Western Europe. Germany is one of them. Germany borders on nine countries and naturally in the north on the waters of the North Sea and Baltic Sea, in the south the mountainous region of the Alps. With around 82 million inhabitants, it is one of the densely populated area states.


Germany lies in the temperate climate zone, depending on the altitude (mountains) and the north-south extent, regional differences can arise. While Atlantic influences predominate in the west, the continental climate dominates to the south and southeast. In the north of Germany, the North Sea and the Baltic Sea shape the climate, while the Alps are characterized by a mountain climate. In July an average temperature of 25 degrees Celsius is reached, in winter the value is around 4 degrees Celsius.

Best travel time:

Thanks to its relatively stable weather conditions, Germany offers attractive destinations all year round. Accordingly, the travel period is based on regional preferences and the interests of the traveler. In summer, a long period of good weather lures the Baltic Sea and the southeast, while autumn promises mild vacation days in southern and western Germany. Between December and March, skiers get their money’s worth in the mountains.



As a federal, democratic state, Switzerland is located in Europe, but is not a member of the European Union. It borders Germany in the north. According to the federal constitution, Switzerland has no capital; the seat of the federal authorities is the federal city of Bern.

Switzerland is a country located in West Europe. Switzerland has around 8.1 million inhabitants, including around 1.9 million foreigners, which makes up 23%. The country is one of the more densely populated countries in Europe, with the population concentrated in the central plateau in the north of the country. The largest cities are the economic centers of Zurich, Geneva, Basel, Lausanne and Bern.


Switzerland has a largely temperate climate, with the north of the Alps being cooler and rainier. Southern Switzerland is dominated by the Mediterranean, and the altitude generally influences the temperature. On some mountains there is snow all year round.

Best travel time:

Thanks to the moderate climate and favorable location in Central Europe, Switzerland is a worthwhile travel destination all year round. Depending on the region, skiers use the period between November and April; mild summer temperatures in the Rhone Valley invite you to spend a long time outdoors. It can get even warmer in southern Switzerland. The pre-alpine region surprises with pleasantly warm autumn days, at Lake Zurich and Lake Constance it is very foggy during this time.



About 60 percent of the national territory is mountainous and has a share in the Eastern Alps. These include above all the Tyrolean Central Alps, Hohe Tauern and Niedere Tauern, the Northern Limestone Alps, Southern Limestone Alps and the Vienna Woods. For this reason, Austria is sometimes also called the Alpine republic. The biggest city of Austria is Vienna with a population of 1.897 million.


In general, Austria belongs to the moderate climate zone, with the east of the country being more continental. In the west, Atlantic influences are noticeable, while in southern Austria some Mediterranean tendencies are already noticeable. Long winters with lots of rain and snow characterize the alpine mountain regions. Thunderstorms often occur here in summer, warm down winds (called foehn) regularly bring the area to a warm 20 degrees Celsius in the transition months.

Best travel time:

You can travel to Austria all year round. With the exception of winter, city tours are actually always possible; the period between November and early April can be used for skiing in the Austrian Alps. Mountaineers find optimal conditions in summer and autumn. If you want to do water sports in the alpine lakes, you should preferably do so in summer, in Burgenland and the Carinthian lakes you can also use spring and autumn for this.

East Europe Travel Guide

East Europe Travel Guide



According to Countryaah, there are 10 countries in Eastern Europe. Latvia is one of them. Latvia forms the center of the Baltic States and essentially consists of four historical regions: Courland, Livonia, Zemgale and Latgale. The mostly forested moraine hill country offers numerous lakes and a coastline along the Baltic Sea.


The annual average temperature of Latvia is about 6 ° C and there is 600mm of precipitation. As in all Baltic states, there is a cool, temperate climate with mild summers between 16 and 17 ° C and cold winters below 0 ° C. Most rain falls in late summer and it is driest in spring. The sun shines between 1800 and 1900 hours a year. The Baltic coast usually remains ice-free in winter.

Best travel time:

The best months for good weather in the coastal region and thus Riga are from June to mid-September. On average, it gets warmest in July and August.



Bulgaria is located in the east of the Balkan Peninsula. In the north the country borders on Romania, in the south on Greece and Turkey, in the west on Serbia and North Macedonia and in the east on the Black Sea. The capital is Sofia.


Bulgaria is divided into three areas from a climatic point of view. The first area is the north. There is a continental climate, which means that there are hot, dry summers and cold, snowy winters. The second area is the Balkan Mountains. There is a lot of snow on the north side in winter, in summer it rarely snows. The Rila and Pirin Mountains have an alpine climate. The southwest of the country and central Bulgaria, just like the Black Sea region, have features of the Mediterranean climate, which means that there are mild winters and warm summers with over 20 ° C daily.

Best travel time

The best time to travel to Bulgaria is from May to September, as this is when the best temperatures are in this region.



Albania is a country in south-eastern Europe on the Balkan Peninsula. In the north the state borders on Montenegro and Kosovo, in the east on North Macedonia and in the south on Greece. The capital and largest city of the country is Tirana.


Due to the location of Albania and the different distances to the sea, the climate in Albania is diverse. There is a maritime climate in the coastal regions, which means that the climate is very strongly influenced by the sea and there are very mild and humid winters, but hot and dry summers. Inland, however, the climate is continental and there are cold winters with lots of snow and warm summers. Earthquakes can also occur in Albania because it is in the seismically active zone, so you should follow the local media.

Best travel time

The best time to travel to Albania is in spring (April to June) or in autumn (September / October), as the temperatures at these times in the region are very pleasant and rainfall is also limited. In summer it is very hot in Albania and in winter it is relatively cold, which is why it is not the perfect time to visit this country.



The city of two continents can be divided into two regions: the European part, which increasingly meets western standards economically and culturally, and the poorer Asian regions, which are developing slowly. As a result of the rural exodus, almost two thirds of the more than 79 million Turks live in so-called “hut settlements” in the big cities, while another 3.5 million Turks work abroad. Most Turks enjoy gracious hospitality based on belief and trust in Allah. 99% of the Turkish population are Muslims. In addition to this extremely friendly hospitality, there is the lively negotiating skills of the Turks in the numerous bazaars, which is always an experience for our hearts. The capital of Turkey is Ankara with a population of 5.7 million.


Turkey consists of a maritime northern region, a Mediterranean west on the Aegean Sea and a subtropical south towards the Mediterranean. Snow still falls on the north coast in winter. On the coast to the Black Sea there is an oceanic climate with humid and moderate winters and humid and warm summers. Mild winters are typical for both southern and western Turkey. In Anatolia, winters are cold and very snowy, depending on the altitude.

Best travel time:

Turkey is a year-round tourist destination. Beach holidays can be planned until November, the Turkish ski tourism runs until April. If you want to get to know Istanbul, you still have the opportunity to do so in winter thanks to the mild temperatures. Only in the south of the country can summer get too hot, which is why travelers prefer to come there in spring and autumn.



Slovakia is a central European landlocked country that has been a member of the European Union since 2004. Slovakia has an extension of 410 kilometers in an east-west direction and from 100 to 190 kilometers in a north-south direction.


The different altitudes of the mountain ranges primarily determine the characteristics of the Slovak continental climate. The High Tatras have snowy winters, which are also contrasted with cooler but drier summers. In the south of Slovakia, however, it is significantly warmer with hot summers.

Best travel time:

The summer months are well suited for swimming in the large lakes as well as for hiking and mountaineering tours. In some cases, the transition months are still pleasantly mild, so that September / October can still be used for outdoor activities. A lot of snow makes the Slovak slopes attractive to skiers in February and March, and the ski season generally extends between December and April.


North Europe Travel Guide

North Europe Travel Guide



According to Countryaah, the Kingdom of Norway is located in northern Europe on the Scandinavian peninsula. It borders Sweden to the east and Finland and Russia to the northeast.


The southern Norwegian coast has a mild climate, as does the western coast due to the influence of the Gulf Stream. The north-east and the eastern part of Norway are characterized by a continental climate. In the deep north there is sometimes an arctic climate with very cold winter temperatures of up to minus 40 degrees Celsius and a lot of snow. It rains a lot, especially in the transition months, especially on the southwest coast.

Best travel time:

Both winter and summer offer ideal conditions for traveling to Norway. While winter sports enthusiasts in particular get their money’s worth between December and April, the summer months offer numerous opportunities for outdoor activities such as hiking or paddling. North of the Arctic Circle, with a little luck, you can see the northern lights from September to March.



Iceland is the second largest island nation in Europe after the United Kingdom and the largest volcanic island in the world. It is located in the North Atlantic, just south of the Arctic Circle.


The Gulf Stream ensures a relatively mild climate in Iceland. Nevertheless, the weather is changeable all year round, north and east Iceland are more oceanic and cool. On average, the summer temperature is 12 degrees Celsius, in winter the thermometer only drops just below freezing point.

Best travel time:

If you like the winter beauty of Iceland, you should use the period from February to April. This time is snowy, but it will be brighter again than in the earlier winter months. From the end of August you can watch the Northern Lights in Iceland, which make up for the short days. At this time, however, it is stormier. Icelandic hiking trips should be planned between late June and early September when the days are the longest and less rain is expected. From the end of June to the beginning of July you can also see an impressive display of flowers in Iceland.



Greenland is the largest island on earth. Geographically, it is part of the Arctic North America, politically it is an autonomous part of the Kingdom of Denmark. Greenland is internally independent, but is represented externally by Denmark, the former colonial power. The Greenland island name is Kalaallit Nunaat – “land of the people”, in Danish the island is Grønland – “grassland”.

Greenland is a unique country: a huge island with a total area of ​​around 2.2 million km², the interior of which is covered by a huge glacier, which is surrounded by a mountainous, often steep coastal area. The west coast is the most populous region, including the capital Nuuk with around 16,200 inhabitants. The north as well as the east are almost uninhabited. Since there is no road network outside of the cities, traffic takes place exclusively by ship, plane, helicopter or dog sled.


The different ocean currents influence the polar climate in Greenland. The Irmingerstrom softens the temperatures on the west coast, here, even in winter, hardly any ice forms and in summer the temperatures in villages that are somewhat protected in fjords can rise to 20 ° C. South Greenland has more rain than the north and can even be a little cooler than the west in summer. In East Greenland there is ice on the sea and in the fjords almost all year round, which keeps the temperatures correspondingly low. The winters in Greenland are crisp and cold with little humidity and temperatures down to -33 ° C.

Best travel time:

In order to be able to use the full range of leisure activities in Greenland, the summer period from mid-June to early September is ideal. Those interested can then take part in whale watching, kayaking trips and hikes through the imposing nature. If you want to spend the winter months in Greenland, you have the opportunity to see the northern lights and pursue all kinds of winter sports. However, between November and February it gets very cold and dark here, which is why skiers should travel to Greenland in March at the earliest.



Svalbard is a group of islands belonging to Norway in the North Atlantic and Arctic Ocean. In Norwegian usage, the archipelago has been called Svalbard (“Cool Coast”) since the Svalbard Treaty of 1920. However, this name is not widely used in German; the name Spitzbergen is used. It is also the name of the largest main island in the archipelago. Svalbard was primarily settled from around 1900 because of the rich coal deposits. More recently, Spitzbergen has been considered the “largest laboratory in the world” for Arctic research, which also includes a launch site for research rockets (SvalRak). According to the Svalbard Treaty, the archipelago is a demilitarized zone.

Best travel time

The season for expedition cruises in Svalbard starts in April and ends in September.