Category: America

American Geographic Characteristics

American Geographic Characteristics

With an area of 42,044,000 km², it is the second largest land mass on planet Earth, covering 8.3% of its total surface area and 30.2% of the emerged land, and also concentrates about 12% of the human population.

Due to its large size and geographic characteristics, America is traditionally divided into North America, Central America, the West Indies, and South America. Based on their cultural characteristics, Anglo-Saxon America, the non-Latin Caribbean and Latin America are distinguished.

According to Countryaah, the American continent had previously been named Abya Yala by the ancient Mayans and Central American cultures, and Cem Anahuac by the Aztecs.


America corresponds to the second largest land mass on the planet, after Asia. It has an approximate area of 42,437,680 km². It extends from north to south from Cape Columbia (58ºN, Canada) in the Arctic Ocean to the Diego Ramírez Islands (56ºS, Chile), located in the Drake Pass that separates the American continent from Antarctica. Its easternmost point corresponds to Cape Branco in Brazil (34 ° 47’W) while the westernmost point corresponds to Attu Island in the Aleutian Islands (173 ° 11’E), next to the Bering Strait that separates Alaska from the mainland. Asian.


In the American territory, the plates of the earth’s crust (North American, Caribbean and South American) in their displacement from the center of the Atlantic towards the west, form the mountain range of the western edge of America, product of the subduction process of the Pacific plate. It is basically composed of a series of high mountain ranges on the western coast (mainly the Rocky Mountains, the Sierra Madre Occidental and the Andes, all part of the Ring of Fire) product of the collision of the continental plates with the oceanic and plains in the eastern areas.

Although the coast is largely regular, it has dismembered sections, mainly at its ends, giving rise to the islands of the Canadian Arctic and Greenland in the north, and Chile and Tierra del Fuego in the southern zone. Other important island groups are the Aleutian Islands in the extreme north-west, the Antilles in the Caribbean Sea, the Galapagos Islands in the middle of the Pacific Ocean, and the Falkland Islands in the South Atlantic.


In North America, rivers of the three existing slopes can be identified: the Mackenzie River that flows into the Arctic slope, the Yukon, Colorado and Columbia rivers are the longest rivers on the Pacific Ocean slope, while on the Atlantic slope they stand out. the North Bravo River, the Mississippi-Missouri system, and the St. Lawrence River. Of all of them, the Mississippi stands out for being the longest and with the largest basin in this area of the continent, being the main river in the United States. In the lakes, those of the Great Lakes region stand out where lakes Superior, Huron, Michigan, Ontario and Eire meet. All the above lakes share a glacial lake system, whose waters accumulate mainly due to winter thaws. These lakes are connected by rivers, canals and locks, emptying into the Atlantic through the Saint Lawrence River.

In Central America the rivers are short and correspond mainly to the Atlantic slope. These rivers fulfill several functions, even serving as borders; such is the case of the Segovia or Coco rivers (between Honduras and Nicaragua), the Lempa river (Guatemala, El Salvador and Honduras) and the San Juan river (between Costa Rica and Nicaragua). In this area, the lakes are also smaller, highlighting lakes Nicaragua, Managua and Gatún, the latter, built by man, located in the Panama Canal, which provides the necessary water for ships to bridge the differences of level.

In South America, the Pacific slope reappears even though the rivers on the Atlantic slope are longer and more important. In the southern part of the continent, the Orinoco rivers, the Paraná-Río de la Plata system and the Amazon stand out. The Amazon River is the largest, the largest and the longest in the world, which forms the largest hydrographic basin in the world. Among the most important lakes in South America there are Lake Maracaibo, Titicaca, Poopó and Buenos Aires / General Carrera.


America has almost all of the existing climates. Between the coasts of Mexico and southern Brazil, the warm climate develops on the coastal plains and mountain slopes. The rainy intertropical climate and the jungle are characteristic of much of Central America, the Amazon plain and the Caribbean islands, while a savanna zone develops on the Atlantic coast of Colombia, Venezuela and Guyana.

In the subtropical zones close to latitude 30º there are arid zones, with desert characteristics such as the Sonora desert (southern United States and northern Mexico) and the Atacama (northern Chile), while in Patagonia it develops a cold desert climate. The steppes serve as a transitional passage to more temperate climates.

The temperate climate extends into the middle latitudes and mountain climbs, mainly on the Atlantic slope. The temperate climate with rains throughout the year extends to the coastal strips of Canada, Alaska and southern Chile, producing areas of mixed forest, while the temperate climate with summer rains is the most widespread climate on the continent, mainly in the Southeastern portion of the United States, central Mexico, and southeastern Brazil. The Mediterranean climate is found in California and the Chilean Central Valley, generating a style of vegetation known as chaparral.

Finally, cold climates extend along the extremes of the continent in the vicinity of the poles, especially in North America. The tundra is found throughout much of Alaska and Canada, and in the extreme south of South America; due to the effect of height in the Andean Puna and a large part of the mountainous areas. Finally, the polar climate is found in Greenland and the cold climate due to the height in the mountainous areas of the Rockies and the Andes.

American Geographic Characteristics

Honduras Country Overview

Honduras Country Overview

According to Countryaah, Honduras is a state of Central America. It borders Nicaragua (to the SE), Guatemala (to the W), and El Salvador (to the SW) and is wet for 650 km by the Atlantic (Caribbean Sea) and 95 km by the Pacific (Gulf of Fonseca). In 1973 they were returned to Honduras the islands of the Cisne (Swan Islands), in the Caribbean Sea, and in 1992 the island of El Tigre in the Gulf of Fonseca.

  1. Physical characteristics

The territory of Honduras corresponds in its generality to a vast plateau. Geologically it is characterized by a crystalline base of the Precambrian age, on which rests a sedimentary cover of the Mesozoic age; more recent sedimentary deposits, on the other hand, form the basis of the eastern lowland. Volcanism is particularly developed, with dull and active systems.

  • The orography is complex: to the west there are three series of direct reliefs from SW to NE (max alt. Cerro Las Minas, 2865 m), between which fertile valleys open up; in the eastern area various chains line up from N to S (the Sierra de Agalta reaches 2590 m), which sometimes reach the Caribbean coast, creating a high and rocky coast, like the one fronted by the Islas de la Bahía. But overall the Antillean coast, which extends from the Gulf of Honduras to Cape Gracias in Dios, is low and bordered by lagoons: the vast plains of Sula and Mosquitia open up there. Another flat area overlooks the Gulf of Fonseca.
  • The climate, tropical but influenced by sea and altitude, is very hot in the low coastal regions, temperate inland; rainfall is abundant in the Caribbean belt, exposed to the NE trade wind, attenuated in the Pacific belt and in the interior.
  • The rivers are numerous, the main ones – the Ulúa, the Aguán and the Patuca – flow into the Caribbean Sea, the Goascorán and the Choluteca into the Pacific Ocean.
  • The vegetation is luxuriant in the more humid areas, covered by the tropical forest; in the elevated areas, above 2000 m, oak and conifer woods predominate; the savannah is widespread in the drier areas.
  1. Population

As a consequence of the settlement process that took place in colonial times, albeit scarce due to the country’s poverty of resources, the ethnic framework of Honduras is quite composite: alongside the Mestizos, who make up 87% of the total population, there are Amerindians (5.5%), Blacks (4.3%) and a small percentage (2.3%) of Whites, which, moreover, hold the levers of power. The demographic increase, already low for a long time, recorded high values ​​during the 20th century. as a consequence of the decrease in mortality, while the birth rate is always very high (26.2 ‰ in 2009). The density of the population is however extremely varied, with strong irregularities in the distribution of the residents on the territory. The rural settlement clearly prevails over the urban one and the only large centers beyond Tegucigalpa, are San Pedro Sula, El Progreso and some port agglomerations (La Ceiba, Puerto Cortés).

  1. Economic conditions

The Honduras it is perhaps the poorest in resources and technology among the states of Central America, also frustrated by a series of negative situations: droughts, hurricanes, floods. ● 13% of the gross domestic product comes from agriculture, which exploits only a small part of the arable land. The government has addressed the main economic policy interventions to this sector, in an attempt to steal the country dependence on US multinationals. Commercial agriculture is of paramount importance: in addition to bananas (888,000 t in 2006), coconuts (in the Bahia islands), pineapples, citrus fruits, sugar cane, coffee and tobacco, palm oil are grown. Subsistence crops are those of maize, rice, sorghum, cassava, potatoes and beans. Mainly cattle are raised. Forests yield mahogany, cedar and pine. Mineral resources are important but little exploited: silver, gold, lead, zinc and antimony are extracted; in the Mosquitia the presence of oil has been ascertained.

  • The industrial sector, whose plants are gathering in the area of ​​San Pedro Sula connected to the free port of Puerto Cortés, is mainly linked to the processing of agricultural products and the production of consumer goods (footwear, cotton fabrics, Panama hats ), while, among the ‘basic’ branches, the importance of the cement tree (Potrerillos) grows. An electricity cogeneration plant that uses waste from sugar factories as fuel has been built in El Porvenir.
  • Inadequate communications network: railways are developed for 950 km, asphalted roads for 2845 km. Instead, the airlines were developed; Tegucigalpa and San Pedro Sula are served by international airports.
  • The Honduras it is part, with Costa Rica, Guatemala, Salvador and Nicaragua, of a free trade area (Mercado Común Centroamericano).

Honduras Country Overview

Paraguay Country Overview

Paraguay Country Overview

According to Countryaah, Paraguay is a state of South America. It borders with Bolivia (to the N and NW), with Brazil (to the E) and with Argentina (to the SE, to the South and to the W).

  1. Physical characteristics

The territory of Paraguay, without an outlet to the sea, consists of 2 regions that are profoundly different from a physical, human and economic point of view: the south-eastern one, enclosed between the Paraguay and Paraná rivers, and the northwestern one, which is part of the Chaco Boreale (Paraguayan Chaco). The first, which represents the extreme offshoots of the Brazilian highlands, goes towards the S with a succession of low-lying terrain (rarely over 500 m); further to the East there is an undulating plateau that slopes slowly towards the furrow of the upper Paraná. To the west of the plateau, an extensive alluvial plain descends towards the left bank of Paraguay, crossed by streams and punctuated, in the lower part, by numerous marshy areas. The Paraguayan Chaco constitutes a uniform low plain (average altitude 150-200 m), interrupted only by some isolated relief; west of the course of Paraguay it gradually rises up to the Andean foothills.

Paraguay has a subtropical, hot and humid climate. Temperatures have quite marked seasonal and sometimes diurnal fluctuations and rainfall, mainly in summer and spring, falls in extremely different quantities from period to period; their quantity however decreases from E (1000-1500 mm per year) towards W (usually well below 1000 mm).

The Paraguay is crossed from N to S, with a mostly longitudinal course, by the Paraguay river which affects the country starting from Bahía Negra; along its course it receives numerous tributaries and flows just N of Corrientes, in the Paraná, also coming from the north. The hydrographic network in the eastern region is denser, while the Chaco, with the exception of the Pilcomayo, a right tributary of the Paraná, has an underdeveloped hydrography with watercourses that often run out by evaporation.

The vegetation reflects the climatic conditions. In the Chaco prairie and scrub with xerophilic characters predominate, which are accentuated towards N. In the eastern alluvial plains there is the prairie, which along the water courses is interrupted by the gallery forest; in the flooded areas (esteros) there is a vegetation of grasses and ferns and aquatic plants are widespread; the campos cerrados del N are xerophilous wooded savannahs.

  1. Population

The residents of the Paraguay are largely mestizos (86%), the result of the cross between the indigenous (Guaraní) and Spanish colonists; whites represent 9.3% of the population, while pure Amerindians are now only 1.8%.

The demographic dynamics have been very irregular: negative in the past, in relation to the war events that broke out after independence, positive in recent decades. The rate of increase (2.4% in 2003-08) is almost exclusively due to the positive balance of the natural movement; the immigration factor (there have been flows from Brazil and eastern countries in the past) has had little impact and indeed in some periods has been canceled out by a consistent emigration to Argentina and Brazil. The distribution of the population is extremely uneven: the greatest densities are in the eastern region, between the Paraguay river and the cordillera, which is counterpointed by the western region (Chaco), almost depopulated (average density of 0.5 residents / km 2). The Paraguayan population is still largely rural; the urban one, equal to 60% of the total, is mainly concentrated in the capital (519,647 residents) and its satellite centers. The only other important city is Ciudad del Este (223,350 residents), On the Paraná river.

Guaraní, an official language alongside Spanish, is a written language of literary dignity. Catholicism is the clearly dominant religion (almost 90%).

  1. Economic conditions

Still markedly rural, it is among the least developed in Latin America. In the 1970s, with the establishment of the first basic industries by the State, it experienced a notable economic expansion, which then contracted in the following decade due to the world crisis. Even the policy of liberalization of the productive apparatus established with the return of civilians to the government (1993) failed to relaunch a structurally fragile economy. At the end of the 1990s, the MERCOSUR crisis and the damage to agriculture caused by adverse climatic conditions further hampered the recovery.

Agriculture, breeding and forestry exploitation are basic to the country’s economy and employ 31% of the active population. Agriculture, although characterized by a dualistic structure (on the one hand the immense estates, on the other the small and very small peasant property), has not suffered the damage caused elsewhere by plantation crops and presents a fairly diversified picture of production. Main crops for export are soy, largely transgenic, and sugar cane, used mainly for the manufacture of rum and alcohol, followed by tobacco and cotton; among the subsistence crops corn, cassava, beans, rice and fruit prevail. Great importance is given to animal husbandry, based on extensive cattle breeding, which dominates in the central regions and in the Chaco.3 of timber per year) raises concerns about excessive deforestation, with negative environmental consequences. The hydroelectric potential has been exploited on a large scale and thanks to its exploitation the Paraguay has overcome energy self-sufficiency and now makes good income from the sale of excess energy.

The national industry, mainly concentrated in the metropolitan area of Asunción and in the Central department, finds many obstacles in the shortage of transport infrastructures and investments. The food sector prevails (processing and preservation of meat, sugar refineries, production of alcoholic beverages), followed by the chemical, electromechanical, textile, cotton, tobacco, wood, leather, glass and cement industries. The trade balance is passive, with a prevalence of imports over exports: among the former, fuels and lubricants, machinery, chemical and pharmaceutical products prevail; among sales, soybeans, raw cotton, lumber, meat and tobacco. Major suppliers and customers are Argentina, Brazil, USA, Uruguay and China, followed by Germany and Russia. Tourism is still underdeveloped.

The communication routes are inadequate: the railways (just 441 km) are centered on the Asunción-Encarnación line, the roads (29,500 km) have their main axes in the Pan-American highway, which joins Asunción to Ciudad del Este, in the direct asphalted section towards Argentina and in the Trans-Chaco which connects the capital with Bolivia. River navigation is important.

Paraguay Country Overview

Nashville, Tennessee

Nashville, Tennessee


Music lovers get goose bumps just at the mention of these two names. According to ask4beauty, because the state of Tennessee in general and its capital Nashville in particular stand for country music like no other country in the USA.

Of course you can go to museums in Nashville. Of course there are many great parks there, where you can jog, picnic and relax in the typical American way. But if you want to hear the heart of Nashville Tennessee beat, if you want to capture this city in its core, you need ears above all. Because Nashville is the city of music, especially country music. Without going to a concert, without spending a long night in a music club, a trip to Nashville is actually inconceivable – at least it would be very, very incomplete.

In addition to a set of well-blown ears, you should definitely have a pair of comfortable dancing shoes with you. After all, it is not for nothing that the city is nicknamed “Music City USA”. The motto of the US state is logically “Tennessee sounds good to me”. Does that sound like a good travel destination to you?

Here is, at least in commercial terms, the absolute center of this genre. The major music publishers and record companies are located in Nashville, this is where the studios are located and where the most important prizes are awarded. All of this naturally has an impact on the city as a whole. Anyone who loves country and likes to dance could easily spend a “night vacation” in Nashville. Sleep during the day, go out to eat in the evening and then dance the night away. That would be possible, but somehow a shame. Because Nashville of course not only has something to offer for the ears and the legs.

There has to be a bit of history

Before you plunge into the dance, there is a little bit of history. Where modern Nashville extends today, there was once only a simple wooden structure. This is where James Robertson and his pioneers holed up when the indigenous Indians made a push to protect their ancestral lands. Everyone knows that they did not succeed in the end and that the settlers from Europe won the long battle in the end. The “Fort Nashborough”, which was at the center of the action back then, still exists today. It is now part of the “Riverfront Park” that visitors will find in downtown Nashville. There you can clearly see how the city developed. It was very fast in those times. The city of Nashville was officially incorporated on December 25, 1779. Only a few years later, in 1796, the young state of Tennessee was publicly proclaimed. At that time, the entire American federation was on the move, and major political upheavals were accompanied by groundbreaking technical innovations – such as the construction of the railroad. It’s fun to look at this exciting development in Riverfront Park.

Incidentally, around 30 years later, the first US president from Nashville was elected. Andrew Jackson, the seventh President of the United States, held this office from 1829 to 1837 and was the only president to date to settle the national debt and hand over a budget that was in the black to his successor. His former private residence, the “Hermitage”, is a good 20 kilometers outside the city and is now a museum and event center. It counts around 15 million visitors year after year and should not be missing as a destination for at least half a day when visiting Nashville.

Athens of the south

Americans like second and third names, so it’s no wonder that Nashville also has another name. “ Athens of the south ”, so “ Athens of the south“Is the name of the city for all those for whom the focus on music is too one-sided. And they are right, after all, the cityscape is dominated by a really unusual building. Believe it or not, Centennial Park features a true-to-life replica of the Greek Parthenon. For those who, for once, have not paid attention during this history lesson: The Parthenon is the main building of the Acropolis in Athens and was built around 500 years before the birth of Christ. In Nashville, the building was completed for an exhibition in 1925. Since then it has surpassed the Athenian original by far in terms of its structural condition. The magnificent building now functions as a museum and houses, also in copies, the statues of the entire Greek gods. A must for all fans of classical education! The “Frist Center for the Visual Arts” is much more modern, where not only film screenings, exhibitions and lectures but also workshops take place. This is where the intellectual Nashville that engages with modern art and modern art forms presents and meets. The Cheekwood Museum and the Botanical Garden are also well worth a visit. Even those who don’t have much to do with art should definitely not miss the garden in which the museum is located. Not only the facility as such is worth seeing in every season. In addition, the park’s evening illuminations are a highlight.

Proud of good products and delicious food

What is fun usually also makes you hungry. It’s a good thing that people in Nashville like to eat well, and above all like to eat well. The city is virtually surrounded by large farms, all of which place value on producing healthy, high-quality products. Whether meat, milk, fruit and vegetables – in Nashville, great emphasis is placed on local products and good cuisine. This applies to private households as well as to countless restaurants, snack bars, cafes and diners, where tourists can benefit from the good taste of the Nashvillians, as the people of Nashville are called. If it can be a little finer and also more expensive, “The Catbird Seat” is an experience. The chef comes from the legendary “Noma” in Copenhagen, which has already been done several times was voted the best restaurant in the world, and has conquered the city’s gourmets in the Surm. The table is reserved at

Nashville is great for shopping, great going out, and great culture. But no matter how high-quality the range of activities may be, everyone just has to get some fresh air in between. So it fits well that Nashville also has a lot of outdoor activities to offer. The Nashvillians, as the locals call themselves, prefer to spend their free time in the city’s numerous parks or in a sports arena. Nashville is crazy about sports and there is no weekend without some major event. Those who prefer their own activity to the place in the stands can hike, cycle, jog, fish, ride and much more in Nashville itself and in the immediate vicinity.

But now really into the nightlife and the music scene

Nashville without country music would be like Salzburg without Mozart. So not at all! There are great music venues everywhere in the city where bands play live and you can literally dance the night away. One of the best addresses is the “Ryman Auditorium” ( Everyone who has made a name for himself in the country scene plays and has played here; Including Johnny Cash and Dolly Parton. A visit to Robert’s Western World ( Anyone who has always wanted to spend a night in a real honky-tonk bar has come to the right place. Great love music, great atmosphere, great atmosphere. The next day should be planned as a rest day.

Nashville, Tennessee

Uruguay General Information

Uruguay General Information

Far away, on the other side of the globe, there is a beautiful country – Uruguay. For a Belarusian tourist, she is unfamiliar. Uruguayans play football well, and their state is located on the coast of the Atlantic Ocean. In Uruguay they speak Spanish, but they call it South American Italy. The territory of this small country is 80% farmland, and resorts attract no noisy tourists.

A tour to Uruguay will help you feel the charm of colonial architecture, fall in love with nature that is unusual for us and plunge into a different lifestyle. So different that it is difficult to describe in words – this country needs to be seen and felt.

Prices for a tour to Uruguay will be more expensive than to any of the Latin American countries. It beckons with its unique atmosphere, the originality of cities and the splendor of the ocean. There are relatively few well-known sights here. Among them we note:

  • The city of Colonia del Sacramento is a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Beautiful mansions, bridges, lanterns, cobbled streets. It is worth visiting the Portuguese Museum, the ruins of the monastery of San Francisco, walking around the old city.
  • Montevideo is a seaport and bohemian capital. One of the safest and most prosperous cities in the world. A tour to Uruguay will give you the opportunity to walk along the Rambla, a favorite place for tourists from all over the world. It is worth visiting the Port Market, Independence Square, the Ciudad Vieja area.
  • Punta del Este is a popular resort. From July to November you can watch whales here. Visit vineyards and wine plantations, and take an excursion to Lobos Island, a resting place for thousands of seals.

A tour to colonial Uruguay will show tourists a country that you can fall in love with recklessly. It is distinguished by a high level of hotel service, due to which there are up to 2 million tourists a year.

Also, a tour to Uruguay will help you appreciate the things that the country is known for in the world. Among them:

  • The real Atlantis. It is a city famous for its natural beauties and large casinos.
  • Hot thermal springs, especially Termas Arapey.
  • Deposits of semi-precious stones.

Also, Uruguay is famous for the high quality of food in institutions and low prices. Medicine in the country is free, even for tourists.

Do you want the year to be remembered for an exciting trip? Look at prices for winter tours to Uruguay. In January-February, the fertile season begins in the country with temperatures of + 24 + 28 °, and in July the temperature drops to + 12 °.

Uruguay General Information

Brazil Indigenous Civilizations Part 2

Brazil Indigenous Civilizations Part 2

It remains now to illustrate the wider area of ​​the Amazonian culture, which, as mentioned, brings together the two linguistic groups Arawak and Caribe in the north and the Tupi-Guarani in the south. The stilt houses, the small house with a tendency to form villages, the hammock woven in cotton, the bitter mandioca, the cassava compressed with the special bag filter, poison fishing, single-piece dinghy are presented as properties of the northern division of bark, quadrangular vases, basket with lid, double burial, with the secondary case of the remains in terracotta urns; Tobacco wrapped like a cigar is smoked, cotton cultivation and spinning are practiced, the use of coca and signal drum is absent. In the southern division, on the other hand, tobacco is smoked in a stone pipe. The houses are arranged in a village, although it seems that this character has recently acquired, under the influence of the white man, while originally the dwelling was collective and the society monoecious. The villages are surrounded by palisades. The burial in terracotta urns is direct, not secondary.

But to give a concrete and living idea of ​​the Amazonian culture, it will be good to analyze the heritage of a specific tribe: we have chosen that of the Vapisiana, masterfully described by Farabec Curtis, located in the northern area, and which is part of an encircled Arawak nucleus. on all sides from Caribi. The villages of the Vapisiana are made up of a few houses grouped irregularly in the open savannah, near the forest; these houses have a rectangular, circular or oval plan, and have two doors, one for women and one for men; they are windowless; the armor is made of tree trunks and branches of various thicknesses, the walls of palm leaves or mud, the roof of palm leaves, and its shape can be two-sided, or conical, or in the shape of an overturned boat. The Vapisiana are mainly farmers; their fields are located in the woods at a great distance from the villages, in places specially thinned out during the dry season; usually they plant sweet potato, sugar cane, and grains, in the same field, together with mandioca; also interspersed with pineapple, cucurbit, bananas, tobacco and papaya. They understand the value of a careful selection of seeds. Men help to sow, but very little to cultivate and reap, which are women’s tasks. Hunting and fishing give a certain variety to the essentially vegetable diet of the Vapisiana; they use hunting amulets and special spells for all kinds of animals to be captured; certain species of mammals and birds are trapped. The weapons of the hunters are the bow and the blowpipe with poisoned arrows. Fishing is done with a bow and arrow, hook, traps and water poisoning. The sharp teeth of the piranha (Serresalmo) limit the use of fishing line. The traps have a great variety of forms, but the method of greatest efficiency in fishing is the poisoning of the waters with vegetable juices, and requires the participation of a large number of individuals, directed by a leader; it is used during the dry season. Foods are prepared by roasting or boiling them. A kind of bread is prepared with the cassava; the tools of said manipulation: oven, graters, sieves and cupboards, are held in high regard by the Vapisiana, who usually keep them in special buildings in the village. The poisonous juices are extracted from the cassava with the characteristic filter in the shape of a long sleeve, woven of vegetable fibers; by means of a very simple device, said sleeve reduces its diameter and compresses the pulp inside, causing the release of evil juices. They also use mortars with wooden pestles. Contrary to the generality of the Arawaks, the Vapisiana are not great potters; they manufacture pots and other vessels for cooking and storing liquids, in terracotta, with the system of the spiral braid, they dry in the shade and then cook the pots on an open fire; the decoration is painted. To transport liquids they use pumpkins instead. The men wear a belt that supports the ends of a band that passes between the legs in front and behind, the women a small apron. Men sometimes use sandals with leather or wood soles, but only to cross stony ground. Long hair, styled in various shapes; corporal mutilations are rare: they sharpen the upper incisors and perforate the nasal septum. They use face and tongue tattoo. Men wear brightly colored feather diadems. On the legs and ankles, on the arms and on the wrists, men and women wear cotton bands; other bands and cotton ropes hang from the shoulders, like a double bandolier. To protect themselves from insects they paint the body with annatto (Bixa Orellana), but for the dances women adorn the body with real decorative designs. They weave their clothes, hammocks, nets, bags, etc. spinning various vegetable fibers, mainly cotton, but also palm fibers and bromeliads. Each type of fiber requires a long and complicated preparation process. The Vapisiana are exogamous and polygamous, the patrilineal inheritance; the women go to live together with the husband in the village of his father. Divorce is not excluded, consisting in simple separation, without ceremonial, but in general married life and the related prohibitions take into account the respect of public opinion. The children are breastfed for three or four years. When a child is born, the father lies in the hammock for a month, subject to a special diet (couvade). Each village has a leader who directs the affairs of the community especially the dances and hunting and fishing parties. There is no punishment defined for crimes. Death is attributed to bad spirits; the corpse buries itself under the floor of its hut, accumulating the tools of the dead on it, and the whole, together with the house, is burned; the family moves to another nearby place. When it comes to a woman, the family continues to live there, but more often the women, and so the children, bury themselves, as beings of lesser importance, in a special external place. They do not worship the sun or the moon, but its eclipse is feared. Disembodied spirits populate their supernatural picture, but life too is a function of union with the spirit. The image of the creator is highly anthropomorphized. Shamanism is widespread. Vapisiana don’t excel in music; they use flutes and rattles. Every event is celebrated with dance, but the great dance that is practiced when a mandioca field has reached maturity is of special importance; in this case, long preparations are made, and masked individuals take part in the ceremony. Boys and girls never play together. The former have fun with bows and arrows. The games of intertwined threads are known. The former have fun with bows and arrows. The games of intertwined threads are known. The former have fun with bows and arrows. The games of intertwined threads are known.

We cannot close this brief review without mentioning the quite recent results of general ethnology, which, in the footsteps of Foy, Gräbner and mainly W. Schmidt, managed to diagnose, by means of the comparative method, the assets of each of these areas, coming to establish that each of them represents in South America the extension of well-defined cultural areas in the Pacific Ocean. Leaving aside the most elementary cultures, which summarize the correlative forms of the old world, we find the Amazonian culture to correspond to Melanesian (Schmidt’s free matriarchal), to which elements of Polynesian (free patriarchal) were added, functioning the western triangle as a species of oceanic totemic culture reservoir (Gräbner).

Brazil Indigenous Civilizations 2

Brazil Indigenous Civilizations

Brazil Indigenous Civilizations

The borders of Brazil contain a much greater number of indigenous tribes than any other South American state, and some of them are still today almost untouched by the White civilization; these two characters are enough to explain the importance that starting from the century. XVI up to the present day have preserved the studies of Brazilian ethnography. From those remote times the problem of a classification of ethnic groups arose in the first place, a problem that today has a long history and includes many attempts. The so-called races, or nations, or, more modernly, indigenous groups were from time to time defined on the basis of corporal, ethnographic, social and linguistic characters. Of course, none of these characters, used exclusively, can constitute a criterion of discrimination, for the complicated phenomena of domination and internal migration of the groups and the consequent acculturation, to which we owe the presence of tribes that have a mixed ethnographic heritage, or that belong to one group for ethnography and to another for language, or which, having already been separated from the central nucleus for a long time, acquired aspects of profound variation, or, finally, they appear at a very large distance of space from the original fire, and enclosed in a completely foreign area, like drops of oil. Discouraged by these practical difficulties, the authors also resorted to purely geographical classification, which, to tell the truth, surpasses the problems just mentioned, but without resolving them.

Whatever the theoretical importance to be attributed to economic means and material sustenance in the existence of a society, we will have recourse to this criterion to isolate from now on a first great mass of ethnic groups, on whose unity, moreover, they are d ‘ both linguists and ethnographers agree. It is about thirty tribes grouped on the Brazilian plateau, which constitute a large, almost homogeneous mass, called the Gēs group or the Puri-Coroados, and whose distinctive economic character is the absence of a true agriculture. All the other aborigines of Brazil will enter a vast division, that of the agricultural peoples, which we will later divide into a number of special groups.

The Gēs live by hunting, fishing, and gathering wild fruits, and if any tribe shows agricultural traces, these are scarce, rudimentary, and probably acquired very late. To their nomadic life is connected the precarious dwelling, the type of which is the hemispherical cupular hut or the simple screen. The weapons represent the bow with arrows and the throwing pole, but the most salient negative character, which alone is enough to distinguish this culture from that of the farmers, is that the Gēs do not know navigation at all, while the other it is a true “dinghy culture”. To describe with a certain system the heritage of these hunter-fishermen of the eastern massif, we will choose a characteristic tribe of the Gēs or Puri-Coroados group: the Crenak, excellently illustrated by the Manizer. For the home, the Crenaks build various types of screens, one with a simple horizontal pole resting on two poles planted in the ground, and supporting palm leaves or branches and tree barks, and the other formed by a real intertwining of large leaves on a rectangular frame. During the march, you walk in single file along impassable paths; the women carry their children and the scant domestic equipment suspended from the back by means of bands and net bags; once they reach the new station, they thin out the ground and raise the screens, aligned in a rudimentary but constant order, with the old ones gathered at one end. Each tribe is assigned its own area for hunting, fishing and gathering, considered as an inviolable property. The harvest is entrusted to women, and consists of the wild fruits of theLecythis, some nettles, pods, wild pineapples, tubercles, tips of lianas and shoots of bromeliads. Add, for a few tribes, a temporary crop of mandioca, bananas and sweet potatoes, which produce food for at most two months of the year. The task of providing meat is reserved for men: small animals, such as birds and lizards, as well as monkeys, wild boars and deer, the former taken by hand or with throwing sticks, the latter with a bow. Meat smoking is practiced; for cooking they use pots and other bamboo containers. Wild honey is collected and mixed with water as a ceremonial drink. They know no exciting drinks, nor tobacco; but the leaves of different herbs smoke in the pipe. The bow is of palm wood, as tall as a man or more, the rope of twisted palm fibers; arrows of various shapes, according to the destination, the most common is that of bamboo cut in the shape of a knife. Babies carry their penis raised and tied to the foreskin. The men wear short hair, the women and children wear hair of various shapes; collars and bracelets are not unknown; the characteristic big lip and ear buttons (botocos in Portuguese) which originated the name Botocudos, although somewhat in disuse, are still preserved. The Crenaks, men and women, go naked; in exchange, the use of body painting with the reddish vegetable juice of urucú is general, as a protection against the cold and insects. Polygyny is rare, but allowed, and more often the capricious change of wives is practiced; however, there is a marriage ban for various family members. Marriage takes place with the consent of relatives or an influential person, to whom the suitor gives gifts. The social group is a small horde, with a leader whose authority is very limited, and it comes from his personal gifts. The women give birth easily in a recess of the wood; breastfeeding continues long after babies have learned to walk and talk. The sick do not inspire compassion, yet attempts are made to cure them with medicinal herbs and enchantments. The funeral practices are simple and are reduced to the abandonment of the corpse in one’s hut, with a small funeral kit. The evil influence of the dead is feared. The explanation of natural phenomena, as well as various social customs, are linked to a supernatural being, the old Maret, a giant whose wrath is feared and to whom propitiatory offers are apparently made. Crenak’s songs are simple lullabies repeated to satiety. This ethnographic sketch of a special tribe gives a sufficient idea of ​​the degree of civilization of the whole Gēs group, a denomination under which the parasitic peoples of the plateau must be included. The ethnographic unity of these coincides entirely with the linguistic unity, since the whole group speaks languages ​​classified under a single title, of the Gēs-Tapuya languages, with the five subgroups north-western, southern, eastern, Botocudo and Goytacȧ.

Turning now to the other higher forms of economy, that is to the agricultural peoples, we must at least mention an intermediate stage, represented by the Bororó and by other few examples; they are hunters of a superior type, devoid of agriculture, but with a material and spiritual civilization much superior to the Gēs group, and which instead tends towards that of decidedly agricultural peoples.

The entire remaining indigenous population of Brazil is made up of farmers. It is surprising that in an area so vast as to include the Orinoco and Amazon basins, that is half of the continent (with the exception of the eastern plateau which is the seat of the Gēs) a complex of uniform cultural elements is found which at first sight it induces to delineate an immense ethnographic unity, which in the various authors takes the name of “Amazonian culture” or “of the tropical forests”. This complex is defined by its components: sufficiently advanced agricultural works, dinghies dug in a single tree trunk, hammock, pottery, blowpipe, lip button, house with beam armor, saber-clubs, ornamental arm and leg binding. leg, feather ornaments and diadems, flute couvade, flogging ceremonies to initiate adolescents, blunt arrows for birds: a complex, finally, truly formidable, which has led some authors to consider it as a gigantic phenomenon of acculturation (Wissler). And certainly the uniformity of the environment and the material means of human movements in the Amazon (very active circulation of boats in an intricate and vast river network) must be kept, if not as the cause, at least as the diffusion medium of the different elements. But under this apparent uniformity, a more in-depth study discerns a certain number of distinct modalities, recognizable, in a more concrete way, through the linguistic criterion, to which we owe the terminology of this classification of the agricultural population: Arawak (Aruaco) and Caribe (mainly north of Amazons and to the east of the Rio Negro) and the Tupi-Guarani group (mainly to the south of the Amazons and to the east of Madeira) remaining a third group, of unclassified languages ​​(isolated languages ​​of the Schmidt) whose densest nucleus is found to the west of Orinoco-Rio Negro-Madeira line.  There are more or less marked ethnographic differences that distinguish each of these schematic groups, but the most recent studies (Métraux) have considerably brought the Tupi-Guarani closer to the Caribs, in such a way that the value of some ancient classifications which separated too clearly the Amazonian “race” from the north to the south.

Referring to the western sector, or to the unclassified and dissimilar languages, it is evident that when nuclei of Tupi, Arawak and Caribi are found west of the Orinoco-Rio Negro-Madeira border, they present themselves as invaders, while the rest of the population of the aforementioned triangle while not maintaining linguistic unity, it has retained traces of a certain cultural uniformity. In addition to the common characteristics of all farmers, who are also hunters and fishermen, we find here the following heritage: in addition to mandioca and tobacco, coca is also cultivated, and to a lesser extent maize, cucurbits and sugar cane; the earth is plowed up with a pole, not with a hoe; bees are domesticated; mandioca compresses into mats; coca is chewed, tobacco is used as a ceremonial drink; poisoned arrows with curare; shovel-shaped clubs; fishing is carried out not only with poison, but also with traps, hooks, nets and trident spears, signal drums; odd drums, male and female, with phallic decorations; hammock woven with twisted palm fibers. The whole community lives in a single large and round house, with a secluded, labyrinthine access; they don’t use clothes; bark thong for men; human teeth collars; perforation of the nasal septum, rattles in the legs; very elaborate body painting; for important decisions of war and peace, parliamentarians during which a blackish drink of tobacco is circulated; exclusion of women from any ceremonial meeting or cannibalism party; prohibition of personal names and myths; intrusive shamanism. Two harvesting ceremonies, for the mandioca and the pineapple; bagpipe; castanets; drum; pumpkins rattles. Each monoecious group is exogamous, with patrilineal descent; monogamous family: each house has its own head, and adult males form the council; we worship the sun and the moon; burial in pits.

Brazil Indigenous Civilizations

Biscayne National Park

Biscayne National Park

The state of Florida is home to Biscayne National Park. This extends over an area of ​​700 km². Almost 540,000 people visit this national park every year. Biscayne National Park has existed as a national park since June 28, 1980.

The history of Biscayne
National Park

It was the Spaniards who were the first Europeans to come to Florida in the 16th century. They were mainly involved in the slave trade and quickly got to know the local Indians. The resident tribe of the Glades Indians were culturally very high and ruled the country theocratically. So it came about that the Spaniards tried very hard to colonize Florida, but the Glades successfully drove them out of their region again and again.
The pirates were also extremely feared at the time. Because of the many storms and coral reefs that were difficult to navigate, the sea route to Florida was very dangerous for seafarers. Today the coral reefs belong to the Biscayne National Park and are of course under nature protection. The coral reefs and especially the underwater world of Biscayne National Park are ideal for diving and snorkeling. The many old shipwrecks are also part of it and some of them can be dived.

The animals in the Biscayne National Park

When looking at the location of the national park, it quickly becomes clear that the corals are the main attraction of the animals. Many people are not aware that corals consist of lime-separating hollow animals and therefore belong to animals and not, as many assume, to plants.
The coral reefs in Biscayne National Park are without question enormously impressive.
These corals, which also live in abundant diversity here in the Biscayne National Park, provide the habitat for many other creatures such as sponges, jellyfish, sea snails, mussels, crabs and titfish. The numerous different fish species, some of which swim around the diver in schools, are also very fascinating. However, you shouldn’t venture into unknown territory alone. It is best to dive with a diving guide. Because there are also various predatory fish and barracudas. Those who would like to experience a dolphin up close will find the opportunity to do so in Biscayne National Park. Manatees also frolic in the water here.

Bird lovers will have a great time in Biscayne National Park, as there are over 200 different species of birds here. This of course also includes plenty of seabirds. In addition to pelicans and seagulls, the rare pink spoonbills and egrets have also settled here.

A special highlight is the annual egg-laying of the leather-backed turtle. These animals are extremely rare and are protected. The animals are also hardly suitable as pets, because a few of the specimens are up to two meters long and then weigh over 700 kilos.

The flora in Biscayne National Park

The flora in Biscayne National Park is as rich as the fauna. Unfortunately, only a few of the tropical hardwoods are left in Biscayne National Park, as these trees fell victim to the shipbuilders. But you can still see them sporadically in the south of the area. Due to the maritime climate, mainly magrove forests grow in the park, which were, however, newly created later. In addition, there are many subtropical grasses and shrubs that feel very comfortable in this climate. There are also brown algae in the sea.

Biscayne National Park

Newfoundland and Labrador (Canada)

Newfoundland and Labrador (Canada)

Pure nature experience with wide landscapes, high peaks and a coastline of around 17,000 kilometers can be found in the Atlantic provinces of Newfoundland and Labrador. The impressive landscape makes it possible to see moose grazing on open marshes or, for example, whales that swim in various sea bays. Occasionally you can also see icebergs drifting off the coast.

The historic cities of the region are: the mining town of Labrador City, the parish of Nain and the capital St. John’s as well as the cities of Trinity, Gander and Happy Valley-Goose Bay, which is also the largest city in the wilderness of central Labrador. There are also two national parks in the region, the Gros Morne National Park, which is on the UNESCO World Heritage List, and the Terra Nova National Park, where you can also watch whales. The southwest coast is undoubtedly one of the natural beauties. From here you can climb the 55-meter-high Barchois waterfalls, which are located near Rose Blanch and can be reached through a footpath made of wooden planks.

Newfoundland and Labrador – Key Data

Area: 405,212 sq km, rank 10 of the provinces of Canada (land Area: 373,872 sq km, water Area: 31,340 sq km)

Share of water surface: 7.7%

Population: 508,726 residents, ranked 9th of the provinces of Canada (2009, estimate)

Population density: 1.3 residents per square kilometer

Member of the Confederation: March 31, 1949 (10th Province of Canada)

Capital and Largest city: St. John’s (100,646 residents, 2006,Metropolitan area 184,410 residents, 2006)

Highest point: 1,642 m, Mount Caubvick

Lowest point: 0 m, Atlantic Ocean

Lieutenant Governor: John Crosby

Prime Minister: Danny Williams

Local time: Newfoundland: CET -4:30 h. From the second Sunday in March to the first Sunday in November: CET -3: 30h.
The time difference to Central Europe in Newfoundland is -4:30 h in both winter and summer.

Labrador: CET -5 h. From the second Sunday in March to the first Sunday in November: CET -4 h.
The time difference to Central Europe in Newfoundland is -5 hours in both winter and summer.

Postal abbreviation: NL

Newfoundland and Labrador – Map and Geography

Newfoundland and Labrador

Newfoundland and Labrador, which was only called Newfoundland until 2001, is an Atlantic province of Canada and lies in the east of the country. The province is bordered by Québec to the west and south and the Atlantic ocean. The total area of ​​the province is 405,212 square kilometers. St. John’s is the capital and the largest city in the province.
The province of Newfoundland and Labrador consists on the one hand of the island of Newfoundland, which is the southern part of the province. At 108,860 square kilometers, Newfoundland is the tenth largest island on earth and, according to Winston Churchill, is “like a cork on the bottle neck of the St. Lawrence River” off the northeast coast of Canada. Newfoundland also includes many small offshore islands such as Bell Island and Twillingate Islands. The Labrador located on the mainlandis about twice the size of Newfoundland and has a north-south extension of 1,046 kilometers, while that from east to west is 724 kilometers.
While the Labrador Peninsula represents the eastern edge of the so-called Canadian Shield, Newfoundland can be seen as the foothills of the Appalachian Mountains. Both natural spaces were repeatedly formed in the course of different ice ages, so that today’s landscape with moors, lakes and rivers has formed in the interior of the country, while the 17,000 km long coast is characterized by steep headlands, offshore islands and fjord-like bays.

Located in the Long Range Mountains on the west coast, Lewis Hill is the highest mountain on Newfoundland at 814 meters. Labrador has the highest elevation with the 1,642 meter high Mount Caubvick in the Torngat Mountains.

Newfoundland and Labrador Landmarks

Newfoundland and Labrador have some interesting things to offer their visitors.

The Cathedral of Saint Johnthe Baptist, built in 1847, is worth seeing. The cathedral can be found in the capital of Newfoundland, St. John.

Near St. Lunaire-Griguet is the Lamse ausc Meadous National Historic Site. She is the oldest known European Settlement in the new world.
Within the exhibition you can find out a lot about the way of life of the Vikings. The settlement has been a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 1978.

The easternmost national park in Canada is the Terra Nova National Park. It was only officially declared a national park in 1957. The park is particularly attractive because of its mixture of land and sea. There are numerous hiking trails in the park for long excursions.
The Gros Morne National Park is also a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Due to its mountain landscape, it is particularly popular with hiking tourists and campers like to come here, as the par is right near the sea.

Newfoundland and Labrador (Canada)

Elk Island National Park

Elk Island National Park

One of Canadian National Park is the Elk Island National Park. It is located about 45 kilometers east of Edmonton in the province of Alberta.
The park has a large population of aspen forests in the entire area.The area is made even more attractive by the embedded lakes. A stay in this park is really very relaxing. You can discover a lot here. Usually you can see the large and numerous beaver structures of the beavers living there on the roadsides. The animals themselves are very shy and difficult to spot.

In addition to the large population of beavers, many deer, elk and bison also live here. The park got its name from the moose, which translated in German means island of the moose.
However, the beavers have also given a name. So the Beaver Hill, in German beaver hill, was named after the nimble and hard-working animals.

History of the park

The region was originally inhabited by the Sarcee and Cree tribes. The first European settlers came to the area in 1881 and immediately built the first settlements. Most of them came from Germany, England and the Ukraine. In 1906 the park was declared a protected area. In 1913 it became a Dominion Park and finally the area was declared a national park in 1930. The original area from 1906 has been expanded more and more over time. So it is a lot bigger today than it was in the beginning.

Leisure activities in Elk Island National Park

The park is very popular with tourists and residents as a destination for excursions. The interesting hiking routes should not be left unused. The area really has many impressive corners to offer. Hiking, wildlife viewing and, in winter, cross-country skiing are some of the common activities. Who wants to schedule a longer stay here, allows the campsites up camp. Several historical buildings have been preserved in the park. The Ukrainian Pioneer Home, a house of the Ukrainian settlers, can be visited like some others.

Animals of Elk Island National Park

The park was the first in Canada Wapiti reserve at all. The reason for the creation of the park was a herd of 20 local elk, whose protection one wanted to guarantee. Today the facility extends over an area of ​​195 square kilometers. With over 3,000 moose living here, Elk Island National Park has a large population of large game and proves that it rightly bears its name. In addition to the many large game animals, over 44 different species of mammals live here. Coyotes, muskrats and mink also live here. Even some porcupines feel at home in the area.
230 species of birds have been sighted here. Many sea birds such as ducks, seagulls, terns and loons live here. In addition, owls have also nested here.

The forest and prairie bisons are particularly famous and popular. These are represented here with 450 animals, making it the largest herd of prairie bones in all of Canada. The wood bison are also well represented here with 350 animals. So that these two animal species cannot mate and mix with each other, the herds are kept strictly separate from each other. So one would like to keep the species separately in their original forms.

Elk Island National Park

Mingan Archipelago National Park

Mingan Archipelago National Park

One of such marine national parks is the Mingan Archipelago National Park. It is located in the east of the province of Québec. The park covers an area of ​​151 square kilometers and consists of a total of 40 more or less large islands. The year of foundation is 1984.

Country and people

The Mingan Archipelago National Park is located in the immediate vicinity of the St. Lorenz Gulf coast. It is described as a unique paradise by both visitors and scientists. Perhaps this is due to the limestone formations established, which extend over the area on the coastal region. The very special thing that characterizes this area, however, is not so much the limestones or the large population of the most diverse water dwellers and water birds, but rather this unique vegetation. Indeed, the vegetation found here cannot be found anywhere else on the islands.
The Laurentine Mountains, which extend here, offer good opportunities for paddlers and water sports enthusiasts, because in this region there are mirror-smooth lakes in a dreamlike setting. The wild rivers, on the other hand, are very popular for rafting and canoeing.
The white beache e almost exude a holiday flair. Camping and sailing are also extremely popular here. Numerous campsites were set up in the southern part of the region. The north, on the other hand, was left natural and has hardly been developed. An extensive and sophisticated network of hiking trails runs through the national park and leads past the most beautiful places. It was also taken into account that there are different types and migration speeds. So routes for less trained or even inexperienced hikers were created. Whereas the more demanding routes are more recommended for well-trained runners or even real mountaineers.

Animals of the park

A wide variety of water and shore residents live on the island area, together with land animals. You can find whales, sea birds, seals and numerous species of fish here.
Seals cavort off the coast and deer, elk and lynx share the land area with the nimble red foxes. The evergreen forests protect the animals and the vegetation below.
The enormous flocks of birds, which show their flying skills in real formations and choreographies above the heads of the visitors and the treetops, are really impressive.

Native American History

There are still 100,000 indigenous people living in the province of Québec today. They belong to a total of 11 tribes. These include the Montagnais, Hurons and the Atikameks. In the north the largest tribe is the Inuits. All tribes have different languages, different customs and different ways of life.

Some of them still live in the same place where their ancestors lived long before the Europeans came to the country. Most of them even like to let the visitors participate in their lives. Be it the tasting of smoked fish or that explain the medicinal herbs. This is what you find out on a guided tour also a lot about the ancient way of life of the indigenous people. For example, how they caught their fish, preserved meat or built canoes. This is also part of the national park: people who lived here and live with their history.

Mingan Archipelago National Park

Places to Visit in Costa Rica

Places to Visit in Costa Rica

Arenal Volcano National Park

North of San José is the 121 km2 Arenal Volcano National Park. The park offers a sea of ​​opportunities and experiences. Do you want to look at beautiful animals, wild volcanoes or bathe in thermal water holes on your journey, then it happens here.

The park’s ultimate star is the 1,633-meter-high volcano, Arenal, which with its enormous unfolding outshines any other attraction in the park. In 1968, Arenal erupted after being inactive for 400 years. It cost almost 100 people their lives. Since 2010, the volcano has been inactive again.

In Arenal Volcano National Park, you can spot capuchin monkeys, three-toed sloths, white-nosed rhinos and hundreds of different bird species. After a long day of hiking in the beautiful park, you can end the experience with relaxation in the nearby thermal baths.

Through the fog of Monteverde

Close to Arenal is the natural-rich eldorado, Monteverde, where lush ferns, thousands of orchids and a myriad of colorful birds, among others, have their home. Monteverde is also called the fog forest, as the heavy cloud of fog rarely leaves the company of the moss-covered trees.

The humidity in Monteverde is probably the highest you will experience on your trip to Costa Rica. In combination with the lack of sunlight, some rather unique growth conditions for the flora are formed here. Therefore, you will also find 2,500 different plant species in the area.

Monteverde is an incomparable destination for those traveling to Costa Rica with an urge for a good adrenaline rush. Coupled to thin steel wire, you can experience Monteverde by ziplining, hovering over the tops of the treetops. On foot, you can also explore the heights, as you can walk around the many suspension bridges that are fastened well above the ground.

Visit the turtles in Tortuguero

Tortuguero is the name of yet another unique national park that gets many to travel to Costa Rica. Four amazing turtle species live in the park. In the wettest time of the year (July – October) the turtles lay many eggs, of which tiny chicks hatch and sprint into the sea before your eyes.

In addition to the shielded reptiles, in Tortuguero you can scout for sloths, jaguars, tapirs and many more amazing animals. Take a boat trip along the canals, which meander through the park’s lush flora. From the boat you can spot the fearsome crocodiles and the adorable manatees.

Feel free to join a local guide in Tortuguero National Park. They know the area as their own back pocket and show enormous respect for nature. It takes the memory of a local man to tell the stories that, among other things, the guides know.

Carnival in Limón

On your Costa Rica trip, you are invited to the most festive and colorful experience of your life. From October 12 and about a week onwards, the streets of the city of Limón are packed with feather boas, Latin rhythms and natives in costumes representing all the colors of the rainbow.

Carnival in Limón is great travel memory. It is an open invitation to dance, party and song that you should definitely accept. The festival begins on the anniversary of when Christopher Columbus dropped anchor off the coast of Costa Rica in 1502.

If you are not that much into swinging your hips to exotic rhythms, then you can still participate in the festivities. On every street there are small makeshift restaurants from which you can enjoy a drink or Costa Rica’s national dish consisting of rice, beans, coconut milk and Caribbean spices. Carnival in Limón is for everyone, including visiting tourists.

Eat on a “Soda”

Traditional Costa Rican food should without exception be consumed on a “Soda”. Here you eat side by side with the locals, but you have to look far for pizza, burger or other ubiquitous dishes on your trip to Costa Rica. Only local and extremely tasty dishes are served here.

A Soda can be a bit reminiscent of a food market, as they are sometimes gathered in clusters. Such places are pure festivity, because the large selection and the modest prices allow you to taste through several “sodas” with a clear conscience.

You can also enjoy breakfast from the traditional eateries. Gallo Pinto is the most common meal in the morning, but it is definitely not reminiscent of a typical Danish breakfast. The dish consists of rice and beans.

Cities in Costa Rica

San José

From a bird’s eye view, every Costa Rican spot is green and lush. However, there is a bit of city life to pick up, on your trip to Costa Rica, in the capital San José, which has 350,000 inhabitants.

In San José you can not pass a street corner without encountering the text “Pura Vida” which means “The pure life”. Pura Vida is a versatile expression with which you can both greet, thank and declare that life is wonderful.

Through the fog of Monteverde

Bears in Canada

Bears in Canada

During your visit to Canada and Alaska, you are lucky enough to meet and observe all the bear species native to North America.

In this article, we introduce you to the known and lesser-known species of bears in Canada, as well as a newly emerging species.

The black bear (American black bear)

The Ursus americanus lives in almost all of North America with the exception of the extreme north and the dry southwest of the contiguous US states. The black bear is particularly common in Alaska and Canada. In contrast to the brown bear, the smaller black bear can climb very well and is also considered less dangerous than the grizzly.

While many black bears actually have black fur, there are several other varieties of color in this genus of predator. There is a silver-gray color variant as well as a brown like the grizzlies wear. Reddish brown fur colors also occur.

The fur color of the black bears depends on the habitat, the further north they live, the more likely the fur is black. In the drier habitats they are more reddish brown in color. The whitish color variant of the Kermode bears, also known as ghost bears, of the North American black bear, which lives on the Canadian west coast, is world-famous.

Like most bear species, the black bear is an omnivore, its food spectrum ranges from flowering and green plants to insects and larger game, here mostly young animals or old and weak adults as well as carrion. If the black bears live on salmon rivers, then this fish is also part of their diet.

The black bears have a head body length of about 150 to 190 cm and a shoulder height of up to about 90 cm. The average weight is around 100 kg, with individual specimens weighing only 50 kg or even 250 kg.

Bears in Canada: the brown bear , grizzly bear and Kodiak bear

The brown bear (Ursus arctos belongs to the bear family. It occurs with subspecies in North America and Eurasia. North American subspecies include the grizzly and the Kodiak bear. The brown bear is one of the largest extant land carnivores on earth. It is featured in numerous myths and Say an important part.

According to PRINTERHALL, brown bears go into hibernation when there is little food, contrary to what is often described, they do not really hibernate, the females give birth to their young during the hibernation. In order to survive the sometimes long winter dormancy, they eat a fat belly of bacon in the summer months.

The brown bears are omnivores too, flowers, grasses, mushrooms, berries, but also meat from insects, small mammals and large animals as well as the extremely popular salmon are on their menu.

The grizzly bear a subspecies of the brown bear family, the lives exclusively in North America. The name grizzly is derived from the grayish brown fur with gray tips. The grizzly is a powerful land predator with a stocky, bulky body.

In northern North America, grizzlies can weigh up to 680 kilograms, for example in the bear population in Katmai National Park & ​​Preserve in Alaska. The further south it goes, the lighter the animals become.

The male grizzlies are significantly larger and heavier than the females. The grizzlies are active during the day and at night, they can reach a speed of 60 kilometers per hour despite their body size, so running away is one of the worse ideas when encountering one of these imposing animals.

The Kodiak bear , which occurs on the island of the same name and the neighboring islands of Afognak and Shuyak off the southern coast of Alaska, is considered to be the largest land-based predator on earth, along with the polar bear and the Kamchatka bear.

This subspecies of the brown bear reaches a total length of up to three meters and a weight of up to 780 kilograms, with an average weight of 390 kilograms for males and 210 kilograms for females.

The head body length of brown bears is approx. 200 to 280 cm, the shoulder height 90 to 150 cm. The average weight is 140 to 390 kg for males and 80 to 210 kg for female bears, although there are exceptions with significantly higher weights, as described.

Bears in Canada: the polar bear or polar bear

The polar bear or polar bear (Ursus maritimus) lives in the northern polar regions of the world and is closely related to the brown bears. The polar bear is one of the largest land predators on earth, along with the Kamchatka bear and the Kodiak bear.

Due to the climatic changes on earth and the associated melting of the ice masses, the habitat of these beautiful animals is massively threatened.

Polar bears are very good and persistent swimmers. Their relatively slender physique is ideal for both the rough life on land and for covering long distances in the water. Their thick fur and the thick layer of fat that surrounds them allow them to withstand the icy temperatures of the north.

Polar bears, like all bears, are omnivores, but their special habitat makes them the bears whose diet consists mostly of meat. Seals are their favorite meal, but weakened walruses also prey on them.

On land, rodents and other small mammals, old or weak caribou or birds and bird eggs are also on the menu. Cannibalism is also not uncommon among polar bears, with strong males often eating young bears.

The head body length of a polar bear is 190 to 260 cm, with individual specimens up to 340 cm. The shoulder height is 80 to 160 cm, the average weight about 400 to 500 kg for male and 150 to 300 kg for female polar bears.

All bears, with the exception of mothers with young animals, are loners in terms of their social behavior. Bears are intelligent, curious and mostly harmless to humans. Fear and wrong behavior can end tragically for humans and bears. Many of the extraordinary and interesting predators are unfortunately shot by humans out of fear.

Bears in Canada: the pizzly or grolar bear

Brown bears and polar bears can mate with each other, and the resulting hybrid offspring is also fertile. Researchers have long agreed that these hybrids only occur in zoos. But now this hitherto largely unknown species has also been discovered in wild bears in Canada .

It was on April 16, 2006, when the Idaho-born hunter Jim Martell hunted down a supposed polar bear on Banks Island in the Canadian Northwest Territories, which later turned out to be Pizzly , a hybrid of polar bear and brown bear , after DNA analysis .

Sometimes this newly created species is also called grolar bear, derived from the names polar bear and grizzly bear.

Meanwhile, the pizzlies, the offspring of a polar bear mother and a grizzly father, are a hybrid bear species, the spread of which is of concern to researchers. They blame climate change for the fact that the habitats of both bears, which actually never met before, increasingly overlap.

The fact that the way of life of both bear species are fundamentally different, so grizzlies avoid ice zones and polar bears do not hibernate, the different foods of both species and much more causes headaches. Who will prevail in the end?

Amazingly, DNA analyzes have shown that the previously known hybrids always have a polar bear mother and a grizzly father, never the other way around. So far, this is probably due to the fact that male brown bears are always moving around, while the females tend to be more faithful to their location.

The scientists researching the phenomenon are almost certain, however, that reverse mating, polar bear father and grizzly mother, could mean the end of the polar bear. Another new species among the bears in Canada.

Bears in Canada

Deforestation in the Amazon and Its Consequences

Deforestation in the Amazon and Its Consequences

Deforestation and fires represent the main environmental problems faced by the Amazon biome, considered a major atmospheric “cooler” [removing excess carbon dioxide dispersed in the atmosphere, which causes global warming] and as the world’s largest biodiversity shelter.

The importance of the Amazon

According to Handbagpicks, the Amazon is one of the most important rainforest regions in the world. This is because in addition to being a huge area with more than 4 million km 2 of vegetation cover, it is home to one of the largest reserves of fresh water in the world and also an infinity of animal species in a rich biodiversity. Studies show that about 20% of all animal and plant species in the world are located in the Amazon Region.

Due to its wealth of natural resources and its large territorial extension, the Amazon has an influence on the balance of the environment on a global scale. This factor means that its preservation is not just a matter of national interest, but rather an issue for discussion between various international bodies and organizations.

However, all this natural wealth also attracts diverse groups that seek to exploit their resources illegally, either by extracting timber from forest regions or by using parts of their area for agricultural exploitation, both activities prohibited by law in protected areas.

These illegal activities leave the Amazon Forest area susceptible to two activities that are very degrading from the environmental point of view: deforestation and fires, which are often carried out jointly and which contribute greatly to the degradation of these environments.

Deforestation in the Amazon Forest

Much of the deforestation in the Amazon occurred for the irregular and unsustainable exploitation of natural resources and for land speculation, since an area deforested [even if illegally] becomes worth more than when it was still a native forest.

In general, deforestation of the forest occurs for illegal logging. To make it difficult to identify and locate the felled areas, the trees are cut in the most inland regions and with a certain spacing, in a technique called “fish bone”.

The Amazon, being a dense forest, has several large trees with commercial value, which attracts logging groups that illegally trade this resource. Despite various policies and legislation that try to prevent deforestation from advancing, the large dimensions of these forest areas make it difficult to inspect them, facilitating the work of criminals.

Deforestation in the biome also has an important relationship with the expansion of extensive beef cattle ranching in the Legal Amazon region, which went from 47 million cattle in 2000 to 85 million currently, thus occupying approximately 80% of the deforested area, in addition to the emission of GHG (greenhouse gases) and soil degradation.

One of the causes of deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon rainforest is the expansion of cattle and soy farms.

The fires in the Amazon Forest

Another illegal practice that occurs in the Amazon Region and that causes a lot of damage to the forest and the maintenance of its biodiversity concerns the practice of burning . This type of activity is used to clean the field, since the removal of vegetation cover from the forest is facilitated with dry cover. After this process, the area is suitable for agricultural cultivation.

These fires occur mainly in areas of environmental protection, and later agricultural cultivation is practiced by so-called land grabbers, who falsify land ownership documents for agricultural exploitation in the interior regions of the country.

Although this practice is old, the data presented by the monitoring systems of the Amazon Forest indicate that during the last few years there has been an increase in the number of fires in the region, presenting worrying levels in the year 2020. According to Imazon, in August the Amazon recorded the worst deforestation rate in the last 10 years.

Fires are extremely harmful to the Amazon Forest. In addition to decreasing the biodiversity areas of the forest, they cause environmental damage, contributing to the emission of gases into the atmosphere, which on a large scale generates serious climatic problems.

For people who live close to the regions of the fires, there is also a decrease in air quality, an increase in respiratory problems and, also, a decrease in vegetation cover, which causes damage to the environmental balance.

All of these factors underscore the importance of maintaining the Amazon Forest, in addition to the need for policies to raise public awareness of the problem and to comply with the laws for the protection of this important area of ​​global biodiversity.

Deforestation in the Amazon

The consequences of deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon

  • Fires and climate change operate in a vicious circle: the more fires, the more GHG emissions – greenhouse gases, and the more the planet warms, the greater the frequency of extreme events, such as the great droughts that have become recurrent in the Amazon. In addition to emissions, deforestation directly contributes to changing the pattern of rainfall in the region, which extends the duration of the dry season, further affecting the forest, biodiversity, agriculture and human health, as stated by Greenpeace.
  • Burning and deforestation negatively affect the evapotranspiration process in the Amazon Forest and, consequently, the decrease in the occurrence of convective or convective rains in the region and flying rivers, which are responsible for a large part of the rain that precipitates in the Center- Southern Brazil, promoting the expansion of drought periods, which will affect agricultural production and water supply in cities.
  • Reduced rainfall in the tropics in regions close to the Amazon, such as Paraguay, Argentina, Uruguay and Central-South Brazil.
  • Degradation of Conservation Units and Indigenous Lands, affecting the permanence or survival of traditional populations [eg, quilombolas, rubber tappers, chestnut trees, riverside dwellers, among others] and indigenous peoples.
  • Devastated areas are easier to be affected by the fire as the more open forest favors burning, as occurs in the area known as the “arc” of deforestation.
  • Extinction of animal and plant species, causing an imbalance in the ecosystem.
  • Erosion of the soil, which becomes unprotected with the cutting of trees and, consequently, expansion of the silting up of rivers and reservoirs.
  • Local and regional temperatures tend to rise, contributing to climate change.
  • Proliferation of pests and diseases.
  • Loss of specific knowledge of indigenous and traditional populations who have lived in the region for decades and who directly contribute to the development of ecological services in the Amazon.
Caribbean pearls

Caribbean pearls

If you want to get to know a part of the Caribbean, then this is the trip for you!
You get to experience 3 of the famous Netherlands Antilles, ie. two of the ABC islands, Aruba and Curacao, as well as both parts of the island of St Martin / Sint Maarten. Aruba attracts with dazzling white beaches and azure sea; snorkeling and diving are popular activities. The motto of the island is “One Happy Island”
Curacao is a wonderful melting pot of many cultures. The capital Willemstad has parts that are UNESCO-classified. It also shows a large part of the history of the slave trade in the Kura Hulanda Museum.
St Martin / Sint Maartenön’s total area is 87 square kilometers, making it the world’s smallest populated territory divided between two nations. Here is everything for a good holiday.

Caribbean pearls 2

Day 1: Travel to Aruba Aruba
‘s rich diversity is reflected in its food, architecture and warm, friendly people. What started as a fishing outpost for Indians has changed owners between Spain and Holland for centuries, and is now a versatile part of the Netherlands.
Arrival in Aruba. Transfer to hotel. Overnight in Aruba.

Day 2: Aruba – Free day to discover the island.
The flag of Aruba was officially adopted on March 18, 1976, along with the official anthem “Aruba Dushi Tera.” The blue in the flag represents the sea that surrounds Aruba, the yellow is the color of abundance, red stands for love, and white corresponds to the island’s pristine beaches. The Arab tribe Arabs from mainland South America were the first inhabitants of Aruba. They were fishermen and hunters and depended on the sea for survival. When Alonso de Ojeda discovered Aruba in 1499, he claimed that it belonged to Spain, naming it “La Isla de Los Gigantes” or “Island of the Giants”. and set up a naval base during the 80-year war with Spain Overnight stay in Aruba (Breakfast)

Day 3: Aruba – Sightseeing by bus:
After this half-day excursion you will know a lot about Aruba’s history and culture. The professional guides give you both the “big stories” and general folklore so that you get to know everything about the island. Stops are made at rock formations, Fjärilsgården and the small natural bridge. Transport from and to the hotel is included. Half day fm. Overnight in Aruba. (Breakfast)

Day 4: Aruba – Palm Pleasure Snorkel Adventure
Start your day in paradise at Palm Pleasure. You have not seen Aruba until you have seen the coast at Palm Pleasure. On this four-hour excursion we will also take you to the island’s best snorkeling spots: Catalina Bay, Arashi Reef and the famous wreck Antilla which was sunk during World War II, and which is a snorkeler’s delight. During this memorable day of sailing and snorkeling, you will also enjoy a delicious lunch buffet with an open bar. Snorkeling equipment is available on board. Half day fm. Overnight in Aruba. (Breakfast and lunch)

Day 5: Curacao
Flight to the neighboring island of Curacao. Transfer to Lions Dive & Beach Resort.
The island of Curaçao was discovered in 1499 by Alonso de Ojeda, one of Christopher Columbus’ lieutenants. There are various explanations for the origin of the word Curaçao. It is most likely that the Spaniards called the island “Corazon” (heart) at some point. A famous Portuguese cartographer at the time adopted this word in his own language as “Curaçau” or “Curaçao.” The island remained Spanish until the Netherlands conquered it in 1634. Holland became a leader in the international slave trade. Africans were sent from their homelands and transported to Brazil and Curaçao where they were sold to wealthy plantation owners from America. At that time, Curaçao was one of the largest slave depots in the Caribbean. Today we can view and learn about the slave time in the Kura Hulanda Museum, a strange exhibition about the slave trade. Overnight in Curacao.

All day free to explore the island. Overnight in Curacao. (Breakfast)

Day 7: Curacao – The Great Desert
If you are interested in seeing the whole island of Curacao in one day, this is the right trip. The west and east sides are complete opposites. The eastern side of Curacao is well populated, and most of the attractions, residential areas and hotels are located here. The main town Willemstad in the east is divided into Punda and Otrobanda. The highlights on the east side are the Queen Juliana Bridge, Willemstad, the Blue Curacao Liqueur Factory and Scharloo, the Jewish Quarter. The western side of Curacao consists of hilly landscapes and valleys, a variety of unique bathing bays, former plantation homes and small fishing villages. Christoffel Park National Park is also located on the west side, with the famous Boka Tablagrottan. The highlights on the west side are West Point, Boca Tabla Cave, Knip Bay, the Flamingo area and Salt Flats in Jan Kok. Overnight in Curacao. (Breakfast)

Day 8: Curacao – Hato Cave and Ostrich Farm
Want to get to know the biggest birds on earth? Join us on this educational and interactive tour that provides a unique opportunity to see the evolution from egg to adult bird and experience these strange birds. You can even feed them with just your hands. Once in the yard, you board a safari jeep where an expert guide tells you all about the ostrich. You will learn the difference between the black and the gray ostriches, how fast they can run and how far they can see. The Hato Cave emerged from the sea and is now a natural history monument. During this part of the tour, your cave guide will explain how these deep caves were formed thousands of years ago. In these fantastic caves you really experience the wonders of nature. Overnight in Curaco. (Breakfast)

Day 9: Full day trip to Little Curacao with sailing and snorkeling
Jump on board for adventure! Our 54-foot catamaran (fastest in the region) is the most comfortable, luxurious and fun way to discover the island of paradise, Little Curacao. Here you and your fellow travelers can explore the island’s natural beauty, as well as its outstanding beach. Snorkel, dive or just relax in paradise with crystal clear water and beautiful beaches. Light breakfast, delicious BBQ lunch with salad, steaks, chicken from the grill, bread and the captain’s famous peanut sauce, tropical fruits, bar with fruit punch, water, beer, wine, rum, vodka and rum punch. Snorkeling: Use of snorkeling equipment and instructions. Overnight in Curaco. (Breakfast)

Day 10: Flight to St. Maarten.
A fact so charming, that it must always be mentioned: The island of Sint Maarten-Saint Martin is the smallest landmass in the world divided by two different nations. The island is only 87 square kilometers and is ruled by France and the Netherlands (where Dutch Sint Maarten is an independent country in the kingdom).

Dutch side
You will find Sint Maarten somewhat Americanized. But it is a combination of the Dutch and French side that makes the island a fantastically exciting holiday island. Independent since 10 October 2010 (10/10/10), but still part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. The Dutch side occupies about a third of the island.

French side
The French side is neither an independent state nor a colony, it’s just … France. It is the territory of the European Union and follows the rules and laws of France more or less strictly, somewhat depending on the administrators who have currently been sent from Paris.
The fact that Marigot, the capital, is not a cruise port preserves the small town feel.
The French side is home to many of the places one must see on the island. Here is Pic Paradis, the highest mountain with Loterie Farm, a private nature reserve with the last rainforest. Orient Beach is without a doubt the best beach and the gourmet village of Grand Case is unique in the world with its abundance of first class restaurants. Overnight in St.Maarten. (Breakfast)

Day 11: The best of St. Maarten & St. Martin!
The tour begins with us going through the Great Salt Pond towards Coralita Bay, a nature reserve overlooking the French island of St Barth. We will drive through the French Quarter, the first village inhabited by the French in 1629, and stop at Paradise View for a panoramic view of the popular Orient Beach. The next stop will be at the fantastic and popular beach Orient Beach where you can walk on the white beach, swim or sunbathe. Orient Beach has over 30 bars, restaurants and all the facilities to make you feel at home. Afterwards we head to Marigot, the charming capital of St Martin, and take in the French atmosphere. Visit Fort Louis, an excellent renovated fort built in the late 19th century. Climbing the stairs is well worth the effort for the views of Anguilla and the entire French capital. Then it becomes more of an adventure when we stop at Maho Beach, where you can watch the planes coming a few meters above the beach before landing at the adjacent airport. The tour then continues with a journey through Simpson Bay towards Philipsburg, with a photo stop at Cole Bay Hill
Free refreshments: water, soft drinks, beer, Guava juice, rum punch.
Overnight in St.Maarten. (Breakfast)

Day 12: Free day or day trip to St Bart.
Saint-Barthélemy, commonly known as Saint Bart, is a French island in the Caribbean. The island was a Swedish colony in the years 1784–1878, after which it was sold back to France. The Swedish heritage can still be seen through the names of towns and streets and in the island’s coat of arms that bears the three crowns. There is a daily ferry connection between Gustavia on St Bart to both Philipsburg, and Marigot on St Martin / St Maarten. Not included in the price. Overnight in St.Maarten. (Breakfast)

Day 13: Free day or day trip to Anguilla
Anguilla is located north of St. Martin / St. Maarten and is a flat, low-lying island consisting of coral and limestone. The island is about 26 km long and 5 km wide. Anguilla is well known for its spectacular and ecologically important coral reefs. There is a ferry from Marigot in French St. Martin over to Blowing Point, Anguilla and takes about 25 minutes. Not included in the price. Overnight in St. Maarten. (Breakfast)

Day 14: Return journey
Transfer to the airport for return journey. Night flight home.

Day 15: Arrival in Sweden
We arrive at the place of departure in the morning.

Caribbean pearls

Sightseeing in Aruba

Sightseeing in Aruba

The island of Aruba is part of the Lesser Antilles in the southern Caribbean. The dreamy island should not be underestimated despite its relatively small area, because there are some of the most beautiful beaches in the world. Diving, swimming and exploring nature, you can even meet flamingos on the beach.

The island with the capital Oranjestad belongs to the Dutch crown, so the official language is also Dutch. It is only about 25 kilometers from mainland Venezuela. Aruba is the smallest and most westerly island of the so-called ABC Islands (Aruba, Bonaire, Curaçao).

Below we present you the most exciting tours, most beautiful attractions and best sights in Aruba.


1. Aruba’s capital, Oranjestad

The capital of Aruba is certainly one of the first sights that most travelers will see. After all, Queen Beatrix International Airport is the point of contact for all aircraft from the Caribbean, Europe and the United States. Cruise ships also dock in Oranjestad, which is best known for its picturesque old town.

The colorful houses make the Dutch colonial influence clear, all buildings are richly decorated and popular photo opportunities. The city also has many other attractions to offer, for example the Archaeological Museum, which depicts the island’s 5000 year history. Fort Zoutman, the oldest building on the island, as well as a stroll through the center with many bars, restaurants and shops are always worth a visit.

2. Arikok National Park

Arikok National Park accounts for approximately 20% of the total area of ​​Aruba. It was only confirmed by the Dutch government in 2000. The nature reserve is located in the northeastern part of the island and is home to a large number of animal and plant species. In addition, rare jewels are hidden between the dunes and rocks. The national park impresses with a landscape of cooled lava, quartz diorite, limestone, shifting dunes and dry river beds.

The hiking trails and drives lead you to the caves with their Indian rock carvings from bygone days or to bays such as Moro, Boca Prins and Dos Playa. The “Movie in the Park” event, an outdoor film screening, is held here every month. Despite the steady breeze in Aruba, it can get very hot at lunchtime in the national park. But there is also an experience of nature that is rarely found in the Caribbean.

3. California lighthouse

The California Lighthouse is located on the northwestern tip of the island, in the Hudishibana region. The lighthouse was named after the SS California, a ship that was healthy off the coast in 1891. The California lighthouse was completed around 1916 and is now one of the most popular sights on the small but fine island of Aruba.

The tower is about 30 meters high, the lamp house has a diameter of 7.5 meters. The listed building is one of the landmarks of the country and is a very popular destination. Many car safaris across the island end at the lighthouse. From up here you have an excellent view of Aruba and the surrounding ocean. There is also a restaurant at the foot of the landmark.

4. Antilla shipwreck

On March 10, 1940, the German merchant ship “Antilla” was sunk by its own crew on the orders of the Wehrmacht. Today the ship lies around 700 meters off the coast of Aruba at a depth of 18 meters on the port side. When the tide is out, parts of the ship even protrude from the blue water. The former pride of the Hamburg-American Packetfahrt-Actien-Gesellschaft was one of the most modern cargo ships of its time, partly due to its innovative hybrid drive.

It was called the ghost ship by the islanders. The ship was sunk by its captain because it was anchored in Aruba when Germany was invading Holland. Today the wreck, which was split in two, can be admired from the boat. Or you can dive down and explore the coral-overgrown remains. Schools of fish, turtles and moray eels have found a new home in the wreck. A fascinating experience for divers!

5. Casibari and Ayo rock formations

The heavy rocks of Casibari and Ayo protrude from the otherwise flat landscape of Aruba from afar. They are large boulders made of quartz and diorite. They don’t just stand around in the area, but sometimes pile up to form huge piles of rock. According to geologists, these heaps are said to have been created by volcanic eruptions over a million years.

In Casibari, the rocks are the main attraction of the landscape park. The rocks can be climbed via railings and artificial paths. In the vicinity of the village of Ayo, on the other hand, are the rocks that nature has created here. The rock formations were sacred to the Arawak Indians. Many millennia-old drawings can be found on the stones here as well.

Hotel Riu Palace

6. Natural Baby Bridge

The Natural Baby Bridge can be considered the descendant of the Natural Bridge. The Natural Bridge was once one of Aruba’s most popular attractions. As the name suggests, the bridge was created naturally. The surf swept coral limestone and over time a transition up to 100 meters long formed from it.

With these dimensions, it was not only possible to hike over the bridge, but also to drive over it by car. In 2005 it finally collapsed. But immediately afterwards, the smaller Natural Baby Bridge was created. The remains of the Natural Bridge still give an idea of ​​the size of the natural bridge. Even without the two bridges, Andicuri Beach is worth a trip as a natural spectacle.

7. Bushiribana gold mine

The ruins of the Bushiribana gold mine date from a time when treasure hunters sought their fortune in the New World. The name of the island is said to have been Oro Ruba, which means “red gold”. Attracted by this legend, treasure hunters headed to Aruba. In fact, they first discovered gold in 1824. A gold rush set in, but it didn’t last long.

The remnants of this brief gold rush can still be seen on the north coast of the island. Here are the stone ruins of the gold mine. It was built in 1874 by an English mining company. It is located near the Natural Baby Bridge. A detour is worthwhile for those interested in history.

8. Eagle Beach Aruba

Relaxed days on a dream beach should not be missing on a typical Caribbean vacation. Eagle Beach is one of the most beautiful beaches in Aruba and is one of the most picturesque bathing paradises in the entire world. There is everything you could wish for here: soft, white sand and fantastic blue water. It is also the largest beach on the island.

Eagle Beach in Aruba is located about northwest of the capital Oranjestad and can be easily reached by bus or car. Due to the expanse of the beach, you can really relax here. In addition, the famous Divi-Divi trees, the symbol of the island, grow on Eagle Beach.

9. Flamingo Beach

An alternative to Eagle Beach is Flamingo Beach, which can be found on many postcard motifs from Aruba. The namesake are of course the pink flamingos on the beach, which repeatedly cause storms of enthusiasm on the Internet and have a large share in the island’s popularity.

In fact, with a bit of luck, you can swim right next to the birds. This beach is ideal for taking wonderful photos in a dream setting. The flamingos are located on the private Renaissance Island, off the coast of Aruba. The best way to get to the beach is to book a room at the Renaissance Hotel or book a day trip.

10. Aruba Natural Pool

The Natural Pool is a round rock formation very close to the sea. Again and again the waves hit the rocks and wash new water into the pool. The Natural Pool is located within the Arikok National Park.

The journey to see him alone is an experience. The Natural Pool, even if it doesn’t sound that exciting at first, is one of the most popular attractions in Aruba. Many visitors prefer swimming between the rocks even to the beaches.

Flamingo Beach

Latin America Travel Guide

Latin America Travel Guide



Mountains, sea and rainforest, beautiful landscapes and well-preserved colonial cities – that and much more is Colombia. The country spreads between the Pacific coast, the Andes cordillera, the Caribbean coast and the rainforest and invites you to nature and history encounters.


In Colombia, the altitude affects the temperatures of the tropical climate. The lowland is in the temperate zone, at an altitude of over 3000 meters, the high alpine glacial climate predominates. There are two rainy seasons between April and June and the months of October and November. In between are the two dry periods.

Best travel time:

Both the capital Bogota and the Caribbean coast can be visited all year round. The drier months between December and March and July and August are recommended for trips to Colombia. Due to the Colombian holidays, however, it can get crowded from mid-December to mid-January and around Easter.



According to Countryaah, Brazil is the largest country on the Latin America. It occupies 47% of the entire continent and borders on every South American country except for Chile and Ecuador. Roughly the size of Europe and with a north-south extension of around 4,300 km, it is home to over 200 million inhabitants. The majority of the population lives in the metropolises on the Atlantic coast. Thanks to its enormous size, Brazil has an incredible diversity of culture and nature. Whether dream beaches that invite you to linger, historic cities with enchanting alleys or animal experiences in the Pantanal or the Amazon – for every globetrotter there is the right piece of earth to make their Brazil trip perfect.


Brazil can be divided into four climatic regions, in which mostly tropical to subtropical climates prevail with an average temperature of 25 degrees Celsius all year round. In the north of the country is the Amazon basin, where an equatorial climate and high humidity are typical. The Brazilian plateau extends south and east of the Amazon basin with stable average temperatures and clearly noticeable rainy and dry seasons. The coastal areas are characterized by a hot, tropical climate with pleasant temperatures due to the sea air and a pronounced rainy season.

Best travel time:

Depending on the region, Brazil can be visited all year round. The northern coastal areas are recommended to be visited between July and December. Rio de Janeiro and the south coast, on the other hand, are particularly attractive between November and April. There is less tourist traffic in southern Brazil during the winter there from May to September, the temperatures are rather cool and there are fewer hours of sunshine. For the Amazon rainforest region, the period from May / June to October is recommended, but the rainy season from December to May does not allow hiking in many places due to the enormous rainfall. During this period the excursions are almost exclusively carried out by canoe. Bathing in the Atlantic is possible all year round thanks to the pleasant water temperatures.



Argentina is the eighth largest country in the world. Located in the south of South America, it is the second largest state on the continent. Because of its great north-south extension, the country has a number of climate and vegetation zones. The name comes from the Latin word for silver – argentum – and provides an indication of the treasures that the conquerors believed to be found on its territory. Until its independence in 1816, it was part of the Spanish colonial empire.


Due to the enormous north-south expansion, Argentina has a very diverse climate. The country is often divided into four climatic regions. The pampas in east central Argentina tend to be tropical with mild winters and warm summers. The northeast inland is almost tropical and even warmer than in the pampas. The west, on the other hand, is a rather dry region with little rainfall even in the higher elevations of the Andes. The south with Patagonia is rather cool all year round, but can be classified as very dry.

Best travel time:

The months May to September are particularly suitable for a trip to the subtropical north, as it does not get quite as hot at this time. The temperatures in Patagonia are most comfortable and not too cold from November to March. The central parts of Argentina can be traveled all year round without any problems, with December to February being quite warm and with more frequent rainfall.



Peru couldn’t be more fascinating: Due to its moving history and geographical conditions, it is a country with an extremely varied landscape and culture. A multitude of sights and a great diversity of nature draw thousands of visitors under its spell every year. Peru is strongly influenced by the ancient Inca culture and the colonial rule of the Spaniards, which mainly affected the religion and way of life of the population. For bird lovers, the country with the world’s greatest diversity of birds offers over 1800 species. Hikers and nature lovers get their money’s worth on one of the numerous trekking routes around Cusco, in the Cordillera Blanca or the Cordillera Huayhuash!


The climate in Peru is quite different due to the large extent of the country between north and south. The Peruvian Pacific coast is very dry, especially in the south, and rainfall increases in the north. On the north coast, average temperatures range between 20 degrees Celsius at night and around 30 degrees during the day, and more moderate in the south. The Andes have significantly cooler temperatures in the higher altitudes, from an altitude of 5000 meters they are always below zero. East of the Andes there is an average of stable 25 degrees in the local rainforest.

Best travel time:

Between December and April is the optimal travel period for the southern Peruvian coast, when it is less cloudy or foggy. From May to September, however, mountain and trekking trips into the Andes and tours through the lowlands of Peru are very possible. The rainforest can be visited all year round, but the name says it all, it can always rain once.

South America Travel Guide

South America Travel Guide



According to Countryaah, Suriname is the smallest country in South America and borders Guyana to the west, Brazil to the south and French Guiana to the east. In the north the Atlantic forms a natural border. Suriname consists of three regions and ten districts. The coastal regions are also the most populous and densely populated. The Wilhelminagebirge in the southwest of the country awaits with interesting flora and fauna. Here is also the highest point in the country: the Julianatop at 1280 meters.


In Suriname there is a hot tropical climate all year round with maximum temperatures around 28 to 32 degrees Celsius on the coast. The temperatures are lower in the higher inland areas. The so-called small rainy season between the beginning of December and the beginning of February is followed by the small dry season, which lasts until the end of April. They are replaced by the great rainy season from mid-April to mid-August, before the year ends with the great dry season (late August to early December). Then again maximum values ​​of 38 degrees are possible. Less precipitation falls near the coast than inland. Short, heavy rain showers are also possible during the dry season. All year round Suriname has extremely high humidity of 80% during the day and up to 95% at night.

Best travel time:

For a trip to Suriname, the two dry seasons in the country should be matched. Accordingly, the beginning of February to the end of April and between mid-August and the beginning of December are the best travel times. September and October are the driest months in Suriname. Whether you want to explore the interior of the country, plan an excursion into the rainforest or watch birds, you should definitely avoid the rainy season because of the risk of flooding.



Bolivia is a landlocked country in South America, named after the South American independence fighter and national hero Simon Bolivar. The constitutional capital of Bolivia is Sucre, the seat of government and thus the secret capital is La Paz, which valiantly defends the false title of the highest capital in the world. With an altitude of 3200 to 4100 m, the city is the highest seat of government on earth. The climate in Bolivia is very diverse due to the enormous differences in altitude. A little over 55% of the population of Bolivia belong to the indigenous peoples.


Bolivia has a tropical climate, with temperatures depending heavily on the altitude. While snow falls all year round in the High Andes, the average annual temperature in the northern lowlands is 30 degrees Celsius. At altitudes between 3,000 and 4,000 meters, at least 20 degrees Celsius can be expected during the day.

Best travel time:

Pleasant temperatures and little rain are characteristic for the period between May and October. During this time, mountain climbing in the Andes is also possible. The rainy season should be avoided.



Ecuador, the smallest of the Andean countries, is an ideal entry-level country for the South American continent. In the smallest of spaces and with short distances, you will find almost the complete variety that the South American continent has to offer. A multitude of sights as well as a diverse flora and fauna inspire more and more tourists. Famous explorers like Alexander von Humboldt or Charles Darwin have also returned to Europe with fascination. The country is named after the equator line that runs through the national territory a few kilometers north of Quito. The Galapagos Archipelago belonging to Ecuador is located about 1000 km west of the coast in the middle of the Pacific. This natural paradise is an absolute must for all nature and animal lovers.


In the course of the year there are no major temperature fluctuations, one speaks of the time of day climate. Accordingly, there are sometimes strong temperature fluctuations during the day. In principle, Ecuador can be visited all year round. In the east there is a tropical, humid climate. The north is characterized by a monsoon climate, in the mountains the temperatures can be lower according to the alpine tundra climate. On average, the temperatures are stable all year round at around 25 degrees Celsius. There is a rainy season from December to May.

Best travel time:

Thanks to its location on the equator, the South American country is an attractive travel destination all year round. The dry seasons of the country can be a guide for travel planning. The period from September to December is recommended for exploring the eastern rainforest. In the tropical lowlands it rains all year round.

Due to the high amount of precipitation, travel to the Amazon region between June and August is not recommended, but tours into the mountains are not in the way during these months. The coast of Ecuador is worth a visit from May to December, but especially in July / August, when whales can be seen there.

The Galapagos Islands enchant all year round with their unique biodiversity. Due to the warm water temperatures, the first half of the year from January to June is ideal.



Chile is a state in southwest South America. Due to the long north-south expansion over more than 39 degrees of latitude, but also the considerable height differences in west-east direction, Chile has a large variety of climatic and vegetation zones. The most densely populated area is around the capital Santiago de Chile, where about a third of the Chilean population lives. The population density decreases more and more towards the north and south. The origin of the country name is not clearly proven. The most common explanation is that the word derives from the language of the Aymara. There the word chilli means “land where the world ends”. The capital of Chile is Santiago with a population of 5.614 million.


Due to its enormous north-south extent, Chile combines several climate zones: The Easter Islands have a subtropical climate, while central Chile is Mediterranean and the south is moderately oceanic. The Atacama Desert lies between the Andes and the coastal mountains: the driest region on earth.

Best travel time:

Thanks to the different climatic regions, Chile is a year-round travel destination. While the north and central Chile have pleasant temperatures and little rainfall between October and April, the south of the country should preferably be traveled from December to February before it gets cold and rainy. If you want to go on a skiing holiday in the Andes, you should travel between June and September. Chile is rather unsuitable for a beach holiday due to the low water temperatures.


North America Travel Guide

North America Travel Guide



With an area of ​​almost 10 million square kilometers, Canada extends over six time zones and at the same time six climate zones. The regions of Canada are as diverse as its climatic zones. Whether you are looking for the cold climes and wilderness of the Canadian north, the mild climate of the west coast of British Columbia and the dramatic scenery of the Rocky Mountains in Alberta, the vastness of the Canadian prairies Saskatchewan and Manitoba, the multicultural life in a big city like Toronto in Ontario, the French culture and language in Quebec, or the idyll of the Canadian Atlantic provinces preferred, Canada offers a suitable travel destination for almost every taste.


Due to its great extent, Canada harbors a corresponding range of climatic zones: Both the polar and the maritime, continental and cool temperate zones extend over the country. For example, on the western Pacific coast and the Atlantic coast in the east, the winters are milder and the summers warm. In other parts of Canada such as inland, however, there are long winters with low temperatures and a lot of snow, although higher summer temperatures are quite possible in the interior of the country.

Best travel time:

The summer months between June and September are popular with travelers to Canada, and July and August for the north of the country, before the first snow can fall in September. The ski season runs from November to April. May is recommended for the southernmost regions, before the temperatures in the interior of the country can rise considerably in midsummer. On the Atlantic coast, however, it is also rather cool in summer. You can also travel to the southern Pacific coast (Vancouver) in winter. If you want to experience the Indian Summer in Canada, you have to plan your trip in autumn, the color of the leaves is most intense in the eastern provinces of Ontario and Quebec.

United States

United States

United States of America is a country located in North America. It  covers around 40 percent of the territory of North America and is the third largest country in the world in terms of area after Russia and Canada. It is divided into 50 states and with the Hawaiian Islands and smaller outlying areas also has a share of Oceania. The capital is Washington DC, but New York City is the largest city in the United States.

The United States emerged from the thirteen colonies that declared themselves independent from motherland Great Britain in 1776. Due to constant immigration from Europe and later Asia, displacement of the indigenous people, territorial expansion to the west, annexation of large parts of Mexico and industrialization, the USA gained global political influence from the end of the 19th century. This was particularly evident in the two world wars. After the collapse of the Soviet Union, the USA has been the only remaining superpower since the beginning of the 21st century.


The USA extends over a large land mass and can therefore be assigned to several climate zones. The north is considered continental, the southeast is humid-subtropical up to tropical Florida. The south-west is determined by the desert climate, while the Rocky Mountains have an alpine climate and the northern Pacific coast has a humid oceanic climate.

Best travel time:

An optimal travel time can only be recommended depending on the specific destination and the desired leisure activities. Winter can be used, for example, for a beach holiday in Florida as well as for winter sports in the Rocky Mountains. Hikes and city trips as well as beach holidays are ideal in the spring months, before it gets too hot in summer. If you want to experience the Indian Summer, you have to travel to the USA in the fall. The foliage color is most intense in the northeastern New England states.


Alaska is the largest state in the USA with 20% of the area, which is roughly five times the size of Germany. At the same time it has one of the lowest population densities in America with 680,000 inhabitants. In addition, Alaska is the region of superlatives: here are the highest mountains in North America, with the Yukon River one of the longest rivers in the world, in Cook Inlet the highest tide differences, the world’s highest population of grizzly bears and bald eagles and in Anchorage the largest seaplane airport of the world. The capital of Alaska is Juneau (32,000 inhabitants), which can only be reached by ship or plane. The largest city is Anchorage with 290,000 inhabitants, followed by Fairbanks with 52,000 inhabitants. This means that half of Alaska’s total population already live in both major cities. 15% of the population are “natives”, ie indigenous people of various Aleut, Indian and Eskimo tribes. Alaska was bought by the Russian Empire in 1867 for $ 7.2 million, a rather symbolic amount for the size of the country – but it wasn’t until 1957 that Alaska officially became the 49th state in the United States. English is the main spoken language, and in individual villages the indigenous people use their own ancient languages ​​in addition to English.


Inner Alaska has a continental climate. The north of Alaska, however, has a subpolar climate, which is associated with long, dark and very cold winters. In the short summer months in Alaska, contrary to some expectations, it can get quite warm. A large part of the snow then even melts on the peaks of the mountains north of the Rocky Mountains (up to 3000 m). Unfortunately, Alaska is one of the regions of the world where climate change is most noticeable. The average temperature here has risen by about 2 C since 1970.

Best travel time

The best travel time for Alaska is roughly from May to October. In terms of temperatures, June and July are very pleasant months to travel, although unfortunately a large number of mosquitoes must be expected. Alaska’s north coast is interesting from August, when the so-called Indian summer sets in.



According to Countryaah, Mexico is a federal republic between North and Central America. The country is named after the capital of the Aztecs, “Mexico-Tenochtitlan”, now Mexico City. The state capital is the political, economic, social and cultural center, as well as the largest transport hub in the country. With a total area of ​​almost two million square kilometers, Mexico is the fifth largest country on the American double continent. With a population of around 122 million people, Mexico ranks tenth in the world.


Depending on the coast and altitude, different climatic zones dominate Mexico. In the subtropical northwest, summer temperatures of up to 35 degrees Celsius are reached, while the alpine mountains have lower temperatures. The south-east of the country is more humid than the desert-like zone.

Best travel time:

Less precipitation is expected in Mexico between October and May, but snow can occur at higher altitudes. Vacationers should also think of warm clothing for city trips. Between July and August, diving holidaymakers can watch whale sharks off Isla Holbox. Northwest Mexico is also worth a visit during this time thanks to the mild temperatures.

Caribbean Travel Guide

Caribbean Travel Guide

St. Lucia

St. Lucia

According to Countryaah, St. Lucia is a country in Caribbean. The beautiful Helena of the West, as the island is often called, beguiles with its dream beaches, magnificent coral reefs, lush rainforests, hot springs and imposing waterfalls. The Piton Twin Mountains rise steeply from the sea and form the symbol of the island. The varied landscape leaves nothing to be desired and the possible activities are broad. On idyllic hikes you will experience the biodiversity of the tropical rainforests with rare parrots, wild orchids and numerous other natural treasures.


On St. Lucia there is a humid tropical climate with an annual average temperature between 24 and 30 degrees. The rainy season is from June to December, during which tropical storms (hurricans) can occur. The dry season is from January to May.

Best travel time:

The months from December to April are the best time to travel to St. Lucia.



The Nature Island – that’s what Dominica is also called. It is the most pristine island in the Antilles and lives up to its nickname. A carpet of dense rainforest covers three quarters of the country and is interspersed with hot springs, lakes and countless watercourses. The land of 365 rivers does not serve the classic Caribbean clichés with palm-fringed dream beaches. For nature and active vacationers, however, the green lung offers an attractive alternative. Dominika’s seemingly impenetrable forests hide beautiful hiking trails of varying degrees of difficulty. There is even a hiking trail, the so-called Waitukubuli National Trail, which crosses the entire island in 14 stages. The untouched natural jewel is based on ecotourism and already offers you several eco-certified accommodations. Sun worshipers and water mermaids are not neglected on Dominica. In particular, the calm seas along the west coast are ideal for diving, snorkeling and swimming. Dominica’s natural treasures will make a lasting impression!


On Domenica there is a humid tropical climate with an annual average temperature between 24 and 30 degrees. There is no dry season in that sense. An accumulation of precipitation is recorded in the months from June to December, in which tropical storms (hurricanes) can also occur.

Best travel time:

The best time to travel to Dominica is from December to April.



Cuba is an island state in the Caribbean full of variety and contrasts, which has a lot to offer culturally and scenically. In the northwest, the island has a coastal strip to the Gulf of Mexico, but the entire north coast lies on the Atlantic Ocean. A fascinating flora and fauna, the beautiful sandy beaches and the diverse landscape in the interior make the heart of every nature lover beat faster. Cuba is an insider tip for diving enthusiasts and is the perfect diving spot in the Caribbean with its colorful and varied underwater world and the many shipwrecks. Cuba also has a lot to offer culturally and the history of the revolution is omnipresent. The still communist-ruled country is known to car enthusiasts for its very well-preserved American classic cars, the tourists even chauffeured around the country these days. With the unique hospitality and warmth of the Cubans, this country enchants almost every visitor.


Cuba is characterized by a tropical savanna climate with two seasons. The rainy season covers the months between June and October. The average temperatures throughout the year reach highs between 25 and over 30 degrees Celsius, there are hardly any major fluctuations. In the Guantánamo Bay in the southeast there is a hot steppe climate with an average of 26.5 degrees, in the mountains the temperatures are correspondingly lower with an average of 19 to 20 degrees.

Best travel time:

Although Cuba is a year-round destination for surfers, divers and beach holidaymakers, the dry months between November and April are particularly recommended. If you want to avoid the main tourist season and travel to Cuba in the humid season, you should pay attention to the holidays from July to August and the hurricane season, which can drag on into November.

Dominican Republic

Dominican Republic

The Dominican Republic is one of the most geographically diverse countries in the Caribbean. It presents its visitors with alpine mountain ranges, the tropical rainforest, mangrove swamps, dream beaches and even desert areas and thus offers numerous and very diverse landscapes for nature and hiking enthusiasts. Between mid-January and the end of March, humpback whales can even be seen in Samaná Bay.


The Dominican Republic has a tropical climate with an average temperature of around 25 degrees Celsius all year round. The values ​​are subject to fluctuations in the coastal regions and in the mountains. The north of the country has more rainfall than the hotter south. There is a rainy season between November and January (in the north) and from May to November in the south. Water temperatures between 25 and 27 degrees Celsius on the Caribbean and Atlantic coasts allow extensive beach holidays all year round.

Best travel time:

Basically, the Dominican Republic can be visited by water sports enthusiasts and trekking tourists all year round. It is a little drier in the months between December and May. In addition, travelers avoid the hurricane season, which is from June to November. Those who want to watch humpback whales in the Bay of Samaná have the opportunity to do so from mid-January to the end of March.

Trinidad and Tobago

Trinidad and Tobago

Fantastically beautiful landscapes with bathing paradises and lush green rainforests, species-rich flora and fauna, lively cities and a diverse culture – you will find this and much more in Trinidad and Tobago. The two-island state became famous for its colorful carnival week, to which thousands of people from all over the world travel every year. During the rest of the year you can enjoy your privacy here on the often deserted beaches. The smaller and more original island of Tobago is increasingly building on ecotourism and is still an insider tip for all nature lovers.


The climate is tropical with an average annual temperature of 28 degrees.

Best travel time:

The dry season from January to May is the best time to travel.