Chad Explorer

Chad Explorer

Chad is a landlocked country located in north-central Africa. It is bordered by Libya to the north, Sudan to the east, the Central African Republic to the south, Cameroon and Nigeria to the southwest, and Niger to the west. The capital city of Chad is N’Djamena, located in the southwestern part of the country.



Chad’s climate varies from north to south. The northern part of the country, known as the Sahara Desert, experiences a hot and arid climate with very little rainfall. In contrast, the southern region has a tropical climate with a rainy season from May to September.


Chad is home to a diverse range of wildlife, including elephants, lions, leopards, giraffes, and numerous species of antelope. The country’s national parks, such as Zakouma National Park and Manda National Park, provide sanctuary for these animals.

Longest Rivers

The two longest rivers in Chad are the Chari River and the Logone River. The Chari River flows from the Central African Republic into Chad, eventually forming the Chari-Logone river system, which empties into Lake Chad.

Highest Mountains

Chad is relatively flat, and it does not have any significant mountain ranges. The highest point in the country is Emi Koussi, an extinct volcano located in the Tibesti Mountains in the north, which reaches an elevation of 3,445 meters (11,302 feet) above sea level.



The territory of present-day Chad has been inhabited for thousands of years, with evidence of early human settlement dating back to the Paleolithic era. The region was later inhabited by various ethnic groups, including the Kanem-Bornu Empire and the Baguirmi Kingdom.

Colonial Era

European exploration and colonization of Chad began in the late 19th century. The area came under French control in the early 20th century and was incorporated into French Equatorial Africa. During the colonial period, the French established administrative structures and exploited the region’s natural resources, including cotton and livestock.

Independence and Post-Colonial Era

Chad gained independence from France on August 11, 1960, with Fran├žois Tombalbaye becoming the country’s first president. However, political instability and ethnic tensions have plagued the country since independence, leading to numerous conflicts and civil wars. Chad has also been impacted by regional conflicts, including the Darfur crisis in Sudan and the Boko Haram insurgency in Nigeria.


Chad has a population of approximately 16.5 million people. The country is ethnically diverse, with over 200 ethnic groups, including the Sara, Arab, and Kanembu. French and Arabic are the official languages, while various indigenous languages are also spoken.

Administrative Divisions

Chad is divided into 23 regions, which are further subdivided into departments and sub-prefectures.

Administrative Divisions and Population (2022 estimate)

  1. N’Djamena – Population: 1,605,696
  2. Moundou – Population: 209,412
  3. Sarh – Population: 183,418
  4. Abeche – Population: 121,200
  5. Kelo – Population: 109,436
  6. Pala – Population: 105,281
  7. Bongor – Population: 103,020
  8. Mongo – Population: 89,301
  9. Doba – Population: 87,963
  10. Koumra – Population: 74,773

10 Largest Cities by Population

  1. N’Djamena
  2. Moundou
  3. Sarh
  4. Abeche
  5. Kelo
  6. Pala
  7. Bongor
  8. Mongo
  9. Doba
  10. Koumra

Education Systems

Education in Chad faces numerous challenges, including limited access to schools in rural areas, a shortage of trained teachers, and inadequate infrastructure. Primary education is officially free and compulsory, but many children do not have access to schooling due to poverty and cultural factors. The country’s universities, including the University of N’Djamena, offer programs in various fields but struggle with funding and resources.



Chad has several airports, including N’Djamena International Airport, which serves as the main gateway to the country. Other airports include Sarh Airport, Abeche Airport, and Moundou Airport.


Chad does not have any railways.


Chad has a network of paved and unpaved roads, although many are in poor condition, particularly during the rainy season. The main highway is the N’Djamena-Djibouti Highway, which connects Chad to neighboring countries.


Chad is landlocked and does not have any seaports.

Country Facts

  • Population: 16.5 million
  • Capital: N’Djamena
  • Official Languages: French, Arabic
  • Religion: Islam, Christianity, indigenous beliefs
  • Race: Ethnically diverse, including Sara, Arab, Kanembu
  • Currency: Central African CFA franc (XAF)
  • ISO Country Codes: ISO 3166-1 alpha-2: TD, ISO 3166-1 alpha-3: TCD
  • International Calling Code: +235
  • Top-Level Domain: .td